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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 1-12

Biofilm in endodontics: A review


1 Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Melaka Manipal Medical College, Melaka, Malaysia
2 Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
3 Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, P. D. M. Dental College and Research Institute, Jhajjar, Haryana, India

Correspondence Address:
Kapil Jhajharia
Assistant Professor, Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Melaka Manipal Medical College, Melaka
Malaysia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2231-0762.151956

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Endodontic disease is a biofilm-mediated infection, and primary aim in the management of endodontic disease is the elimination of bacterial biofilm from the root canal system. The most common endodontic infection is caused by the surface-associated growth of microorganisms. It is important to apply the biofilm concept to endodontic microbiology to understand the pathogenic potential of the root canal microbiota as well as to form the basis for new approaches for disinfection. It is foremost to understand how the biofilm formed by root canal bacteria resists endodontic treatment measures. Bacterial etiology has been confirmed for common oral diseases such as caries and periodontal and endodontic infections. Bacteria causing these diseases are organized in biofilm structures, which are complex microbial communities composed of a great variety of bacteria with different ecological requirements and pathogenic potential. The biofilm community not only gives bacteria effective protection against the host's defense system but also makes them more resistant to a variety of disinfecting agents used as oral hygiene products or in the treatment of infections. Successful treatment of these diseases depends on biofilm removal as well as effective killing of biofilm bacteria. So, the fundamental to maintain oral health and prevent dental caries, gingivitis, and periodontitis is to control the oral biofilms. From these aspects, the formation of biofilms carries particular clinical significance because not only host defense mechanisms but also therapeutic efforts including chemical and mechanical antimicrobial treatment measures have the most difficult task of dealing with organisms that are gathered in a biofilm. The aim of this article was to review the mechanisms of biofilms' formation, their roles in pulpal and periapical pathosis, the different types of biofilms, the factors influencing biofilm formation, the mechanisms of their antimicrobial resistance, techniques to identify biofilms.


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