Comparative study using Papanicolaou stain and silver-stained nucleolar organizer region counts in exfoliative smear of oral mucosa in bidi smokers and nonsmokers
Sheetal Prabhakar Mhaske1, Kirti Pattanshetti2, Kiran Jagtap3, Priyanka Debta4, Archana Lanje Misurya5, Jaladhi Hemantkumar Patel6
1 Department of Oral Pathology, National Tobacco Control Programme, Akola, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Maitri College of Dentistry and Research Centre, Durg, Chhattisgarh, India
3 Department of Oral Pathology, SMBT Institute of Dental Sciences and Research, Nashik, Maharashtra, India
4 Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Institute Dental Sciences, SOA (Deemed to Be University), Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
5 Department of Oral Pathology, Maharana Pratap College of Dentistry and Research Centre, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India
6 Department of Periodontology and Dentistry, Government Medical College, Bhavnagar, Gujarat, India
Dr. Jaladhi Hemantkumar Patel
Government Medical College, Bhavnagar, Gujarat
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the proliferative activity of exfoliated cells in bidi smoker's and nonsmoker's oral mucosa.
Materials and Methods: The oral mucosal exfoliate smears were prepared from 40 individuals (20 nonsmokers and 20 smokers) with the age group ranging from 25 to 70 years, in and around Akola (Maharashtra). The Papanicolaou (PAP) stain and silver-stained nucleolar organizer region (AgNOR) were used to prepare cytogenic smear to evaluate the presence of cytological alterations, suggestive of inflammation, dysplasia, keratinization, and proliferative activity of epithelial cells. The present study involves PAP Class I and Class II smears. The obtained data were tabulated and statistically analyzed using statistical software IBM SPSS IBM Corp., Statistics for Windows, Version 20.0. Armonk, NY, USA: IBM Corp., and using t-test.
Results: There was a significant difference in mean number of AgNORs/nucleus between nonsmokers (0.947 ± 0.2533) and smokers (3.021 ± 0.2256). There were 90% inflammatory changes observed in smokers whereas nonsmokers showed only 75% changes. PAP Class II changes, i.e., significant proliferative activity, were found between smokers and nonsmokers mucosa.
Conclusion: A significant difference of AgNORs/nucleus was found between nonsmokers and smokers.