|Year : 2019 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 47-54
|Assessment of inhibition of mineral loss from human tooth enamel by carbon dioxide laser and 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride
Vilas Takate1, Adesh Kakade1, Pooja Bheda1, Kishor Dighe2, NIharika Singh Rathore3, Niharika Singh Chauhan4
1 Department of Paediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Nair Hospital Dental College, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Paediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Government Dental College and Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
3 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Jodhpur Dental College and Hospital, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India
4 Department of Prosthodontics, MA Rangoonwala Dental College and Research Center, Pune, Maharashtra, India
|Date of Submission||19-Sep-2018|
|Date of Acceptance||24-Oct-2018|
|Date of Web Publication||14-Feb-2019|
Dr. Vilas Takate
Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Nair Hospital Dental College, Mumbai, Maharashtra
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
Aims and Objectives: The efficacy of carbon dioxide (CO2) laser irradiation combined with fluoride in inhibiting enamel demineralization has been demonstrated by several laboratory investigations. However, there are very few reports about the in situ or in vivo caries preventive effect of CO2laser combined with topical fluoride on dental enamel. Hence, an in situ study was designed and carried out to assess inhibition of mineral loss from human tooth enamel by CO2laser and 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF).
Material and Methods: Impressions of upper and lower arch of the volunteers were made in alginate impression material. Study models were poured, duplicated, and duly labeled. On the working model, appliances were fabricated in acrylic resin to fit the upper dental arch of the volunteers. Four enamel slabs (one from each group) were fitted on the palatal surface of the appliance as close as possible to posterior teeth. Surfaces of slabs were kept below the outer surface of acrylic. The analysis was done using SPSS version 15 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) Windows software program.
Results: Statistically significant increase in inhibition of mineral loss of enamel slabs when treated individually or in a combination of low power CO2laser and 1.23% APF solution. The application of 1.23% APF solution after low power CO2laser treatment showed maximum inhibition of mineral loss.
Conclusion: The combined use of this specific laser treatment plus fluoride was more successful than either laser treatment or fluoride alone in the inhibition of mineral loss in the mouth. The results of this study also suggest that the combination of low power laser treatment with fluoride therapy may be effective as a caries inhibition treatment.
Keywords: Assessment, carbon dioxide laser, dental caries, fluoride, mineral loss
|How to cite this article:|
Takate V, Kakade A, Bheda P, Dighe K, Rathore NS, Chauhan NS. Assessment of inhibition of mineral loss from human tooth enamel by carbon dioxide laser and 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride. J Int Soc Prevent Communit Dent 2019;9:47-54
|How to cite this URL:|
Takate V, Kakade A, Bheda P, Dighe K, Rathore NS, Chauhan NS. Assessment of inhibition of mineral loss from human tooth enamel by carbon dioxide laser and 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride. J Int Soc Prevent Communit Dent [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 May 21];9:47-54. Available from: http://www.jispcd.org/text.asp?2019/9/1/47/252264
| Introduction|| |
The greatest challenge in managing dental caries process is to sort how the contributing factors interact in a way that translates into effective strategies for disease diagnosis, prevention, and therapy. The focus of the management of dental caries has shifted from intervention to prevention in the past few decades. The aim of prevention is to diagnose the disease before any irreversible carious lesion has been established. However, because of the nature of this disease process, there can be no single “preventive program” to be superimposed uncritically on all populations. The important question remains how to control caries lesion as cost-effectively as possible. The severe “old” recommended preventive programs are no longer effective, not just because the caries incidence rate has changed but as the environment and changing trends among the population.,
Among various means for prevention of dental caries, fluoride has emerged among a plethora of elements as the redeeming messiah to the plague of dental caries. It has been postulated that the ability to conquer this indomitable disease lies within the folds of the widespread and judicious use of fluoride. In fact, the most developed countries have benefited from the use of fluoride., Over the years, topical fluoride application has managed to give a consistent decline in the prevalence of dental caries. Among the professionally applied topical fluorides, 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) has been found to be promising., However, it has been postulated that 4 min application of 1.23% APF is not sufficient for the adequate effect and fluoride should be in contact with the tooth at least for 2–6 h to have optimum effect.,
Of all the other avenues open to caries prevention, prevention through increased acid resistance and inhibition to mineral losses a result of laser treatment is one of the most fascinating and promising. Different explanations for the increased acid resistance of the laser treated enamel have been suggested, such as decreased enamel permeability, alterations in chemical composition, or a combination of both. Carbon dioxide (CO2) laser irradiation of human dental enamel at 10.6 μm wavelength and continuous as well as pulsed,, wave modeled to significantly reduced dissolution rates. Instantaneous transformation of hydroxyapatite to fluorapatite by irradiation with a high-energy CO2 laser in the presence of sodium fluoride has been demonstrated in vitro. Furthermore, 1.23% APF application after laser irradiation has been shown to have greater fluoride uptake and acid resistance as compared to sodium fluoride application after laser treatment.
While laser treatment in combination with fluoride application appears to have several advantages over fluoride application alone, some untoward effects are observed on enamel surfaces after laser treatment, such as surface cracking and melted areas. In order to overcome these untoward effects of laser, laser application through fluoride solution has been tried, but very few studies are available. The efficacy of CO2 laser irradiation combined with fluoride in inhibiting enamel demineralization has been demonstrated by several laboratory investigations. However, there are very few reports about the in situ or in vivo caries preventive effect of CO2 laser combined with topical fluoride on dental enamel., Hence, an in situ study was designed and carried out to assess inhibition of mineral loss from human tooth enamel by CO2 laser and 1.23% APF.
| Materials and Methods|| |
The present in situ study was carried out in the Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, in collaboration with the Department of Sophisticated Analytical Instrument Facility and Department of Metallurgical and Material Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology to assess inhibition of mineral loss from human tooth enamel by CO2 laser and 1.23% APF.
Before starting the study, the necessary approval was obtained from the Local Ethical Committee (Letter no: GDCB/25/2017), and permission was sought from volunteers participating in the study. Volunteers in the age group of 18–25 years were selected for the study. A written informed consent was obtained after explaining the study details, schedule, and possible risks involved in the study. Complete medical and dental history of volunteers was elicited.
Preparation of enamel slabs
Eighty sound premolars extracted for orthodontic reasons were used in the study. The teeth were washed with water and stored in prepared thymol solution under refrigeration till use. The selected teeth were checked for surface cracks, white spots, or mottling using contrast light. Using water-cooled diamond disc, enamel slabs of 4 mm × 4 mm × 1.5 mm were cut from buccal surface of each tooth. The dimensions were standardized using vernier caliper.
Preparation of 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride solution
The topical fluoride solution was prepared by adding 4 g of pure sodium fluoride in 200 ml of 0.1 M phosphoric acid in a plastic beaker. To this solution, 48% hydrofluoric acid was added to adjust the pH between 3 and 3.5 using Eutech pH meter and fluoride concentration at 1.23%. The solution was prepared under constant stirring using a magnetic stirrer and fischer.
Carbon dioxide laser
Commercially available dream pulse III surgical laser system (Daeshin Enterprise, Korea) was used at super pulse setting and Mode A (having pulse duration of 800 μs), each pulse separated by 100 ms with energy output of 5 W per pulse. The laser system operated at 10.6 μm wavelength.
Lasing the samples
The entire enamel surface of the samples was irradiated for 15 s by the single operator by moving the laser probe tip continuously at a distance <1 mm from the sample surface.
The groups studied in this investigation were as follows:
- Group A: control samples, sound tooth enamel slabs receiving no treatment
- Group B: Enamel slabs treated with 1.23% APF solution for 4 min
- Group C: Enamel slabs lased for 15 s using super pulse setting and Mode A (having pulse duration of 800 μs), each pulse separated by 100 ms and energy output of 5 W per pulse
- Group D: Enamel slabs which were treated with 1.23% APF solution for 4 min after lasing.
Acrylic palatal appliance
Impressions of upper and lower arch of the volunteers were made in alginate impression material. Study models were poured, duplicated, and duly labeled. On the working model, appliances were fabricated in acrylic resin to fit the upper dental arch of the volunteers. Four enamel slabs (one from each group) were fitted on the palatal surface of the appliance as close as possible to posterior teeth. Surfaces of slabs were kept below the outer surface of acrylic.
The volunteers were given a commercially available nonfluoridated dentifrice to use for 2 weeks (washout period) before the actual study. The volunteers were recalled at the end of the 2 weeks of washout period for delivering the acrylic palatal appliance with the incorporated four enamel slabs. They were instructed to continue the normal tooth brushing with the same nonfluoridated dentifrice for the next 4 weeks of study. Before the commencement of the study, the volunteers were demonstrated the correct brushing technique to brush their teeth.
Volunteers were instructed to wear acrylic palatal appliance all the time, including at night. They were allowed to remove the appliances only during meals and when performing oral hygiene. They were also instructed to remove the appliance and drip one drop of 20% sucrose solution onto all 4 enamel slabs 4 times a day at a fixed time interval of 6 h. Before the palatal appliance was replaced in the mouth, a 5 min waiting time was standardized for sucrose diffusion into the dental plaque. The appliances were extraorally brushed, except the enamel slabs, and volunteers were asked to brush carefully to avoid disturbing the plaque.
At the end of the study period of 4 weeks, the appliances were retrieved, and the slabs were removed from the appliances, washed with deionized water and stored in Eppendorf tubes duly labeled till further analysis.
The enamel slabs were analyzed using,
- Wet Chemical Analysis
- Surface Microhardness Analysis
- Polarized Light Microscopy (PLM).
Following is the schematic representation of the study design:
- Total slabs used for study = 80
- Wet chemical analysis of 10 slabs from each group was done
- Surface microhardness testing of 5 slabs from each group was done before and after the study period
- 5 enamel slabs from each group were assessed using PLM.
The results obtained were tabulated and following statistical tests were applied:
- Mean and Standard deviation
- ANOVA test
- Tukey test.
| Results|| |
The mean total calcium content in Group A, B, C, and D were, respectively, 388.77 ± 32.35 μg, 284.74 ± 24.15 μg, 299.99 ± 16.28 μg, and 206.92 ± 29.65 μg [Table 1]. The mean enamel weight leached away was found to be 1039.48 ± 86.49 μg, 761.35 ± 64.56 μg, 802.11 ± 43.53 μg, and 553.25 ± 79.27 μg respectively in Group A, B, C, and D [Table 2]. The mean enamel thickness removed was found to be 22.02 ± 1.83 μm, 16.13 ± 1.37 μm, 16.99 ± 0.92 μm, and 11.72 ± 1.68 μm in Group A, B, C, and D, respectively [Table 3]. In a comparison of all the groups, lowest values for all the parameter were found in group D.
In the intergroup comparison of relative acid resistance using the weight of enamel etched away (WE) as a parameter the difference in Groups A and B, A and C, A and D, B and D, C and D was found to be statistically significant with P < 0.05. Whereas the difference between Group B and C was marginally less and the difference was not found to be statistically significant with P> 0.05 [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6].
Among all the groups, Group D showed lowest values of mean calcium content in prepared solution (206.92 ± 29.65 μg), mean WE (553.25 ± 79.27 μg), and mean thickness of enamel removed (11.72 ± 1.68 μm) suggestive of maximum acid resistance.
Surface microhardness analysis
The mean surface microhardness value of enamel slabs from all the four groups before the study period were 320.60 ± 9.21, 320.60 ± 7.89, 318.60 ± 10.92, and 321.807 ± 0.22, respectively [Table 7]. The difference in microhardness value among the study group was not statistically significant as the P> 0.05. After the end of the study period of 4 weeks, the value was found to be 112 ± 4.30, 165.60 ± 4.77, 167.40 ± 6.58, and 224.80 ± 6.61, respectively [Table 8]. There was decrease in the value after the study period, and the difference was found to be statistically different in all the groups.
|Table 7: Microhardness (Vicker's hardness number) before the study period|
Click here to view
|Table 8: Microhardness (Vicker's hardness number) after the study period|
Click here to view
When the intergroup comparison of the change in surface microhardness between Group A and B was done, the value in B was found to be <A. The difference of decrease in surface microhardness of these two groups was statistically significant with P < 0.05. The difference of decrease in surface microhardness from Group A to C and A to D was found to be statistically significant with P < 0.05. The difference in surface microhardness of both Groups B and C was statistically not significant with P> 0.05. The difference of decrease in surface microhardness of these two Groups B and D, C and D was statistically significant with P < 0.05 [Table 9]. Among all the groups, Group D showed least change in surface microhardness, i.e., only 46.50% of the Group A suggestive of maximum inhibition of mineral loss.
|Table 9: Intergroup comparison of Microhardness (Vicker's hardness number) after the study period|
Click here to view
Polarized light microscopy
The mean depth of demineralized lesions in enamel slabs were 220.60 ± 7.02 μm, 160.60 ± 5.73 μm, 167.20 ± 5.45 μm, and 120.20 ± 5.07 μm in Group A, Group B, Group C, and Group D, respectively [Table 10]. In the intergroup comparison of depth of demineralized lesion, the difference in mean of the depth of demineralized lesion of these Groups A and B, A and C, A and D, B and D, C and D was statistically significant with P < 0.05 [Table 11]. The difference in mean of the depth of demineralized lesion of the Groups B and C was statistically not significant with P> 0.05. Among all the groups, Group D showed the least depth of demineralized lesion suggestive of maximum inhibition to demineralization followed by Group B and Group C.
|Table 10: Depth of demineralized lesions in um (polarized light microscopy)|
Click here to view
|Table 11: Intergroup comparison of depth of demineralized lesions in um (polarized light microscopy)|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
Of all the avenues open to combat the menace of dental caries, use of fluorides has been promising. Fluoride influences dental caries process in two ways: (i) inhibition of demineralization at the crystal surface within the tooth, and (ii) the enhancement of subsurface remineralization resulting in arrest or reversal of carious lesions. Another way for prevention of dental caries, prevention through increased acid resistance as a result of laser treatment has been investigated ever since the introduction of lasers to the field dentistry by Stern and Sognnaes. However, the use of high power laser systems did result in some unwanted effects such as surface cracking and melted areas, surface crazing, and cratering.
The question, how to avoid the undesirable effect of the surface cracks and craters with the preventive potential of laser treatment, captured the minds of some investigators. Thus, many in vitro studies were carried out to possibly avoid unwanted effects of the laser by use of topically applied fluoride solution and laser treatment. These studies have shown a beneficial effect by increasing acid resistance and fluoride uptake. Despite the promising results of these studies, very few in situ studies have been carried out to study the effect of topically applied fluoride and CO2 laser. The present study was designed and carried out to assess the inhibition of mineral loss from human tooth enamel by CO2 laser and 1.23% APF.
As stated by Paes Leme et al. this enamel slab model used in the study was able to simulate a high caries-risk situation. At the end of the study period of 4 weeks, the appliances were retrieved, and the slabs were removed from the appliance, washed with deionized water, and stored in Eppendorf tubes duly labeled till further analysis. Recent papers confirm that topical fluoride application is more effective in caries prevention than systemic fluoride application.
Jiang et al. evaluated the effect of a bi-annual professional application of APF foam on caries increment in the primary dentition over a 2-year period and found it effective in reducing the increment of dental caries in the primary teeth. However, at the same time, time of application of professionally applied topical fluorides play a significant role and minimum of 6 h contact time is necessary for the optimum formation of fluorapatite or fluorohydroxyapatite. Furthermore, using synthetic hydroxyapatite, it has been shown that high energy CO2 laser treatment could transform hydroxyapatite into fluorapatite in the presence of fluoride. Thus, APF solution was used in the present study to check whether any beneficial effect could be obtained when it is used along with CO2 laser.
Dental hard tissues strongly absorb light in certain regions of infrared spectrum, because of phosphate, carbonate, and hydroxyl groups in the crystal structure. The CO2 laser produces radiation in the infrared region that coincides closely with the apatite absorption bands. For this reason, CO2 laser was used in the present study.
CO2 laser when used at continuous wave mode or pulsed wave mode have shown increased acid resistance. In pulsed wave mode, if the pulse duration is short enough, nearly all energy is dissipated at this region, whereas if it is longer, some heat is deposited in upper layers, and the remaining energy is transmitted deeper into the tissue. Thus, a large amount of energy is delivered in a short time to achieve optimum effect. Hence, pulsed wave CO2 laser was preferred in the present study over the continuous wave CO2 laser.
Low-power surgical laser system (Dream Pulse III, Daeshin Enterprise, Korea) was used in this study. The test groups were lased with CO2 laser at 10.6 μm wavelength, energy level of 5 J/cm2 for 15 s with pulse duration of 800 μs and each pulse separated by 100 ms. The use of low power laser system for the evaluation of possible acid resistance has also been carried out by Hsu et al. 2000, Whitters and Strang 2000, and Esteves-Oliveira et al. 2009.
The 9.6 μm wavelength has 10 times higher absorption in enamel (8000−1) than 10.6 μm wavelength (825−1) and has therefore been considered the most promising for use in caries prevention. However, the lower absorption of the 10.6 μm wavelength results in a higher penetration depth and can, therefore, affect thicker layer of enamel. For this reason, it has been suggested that caries preventive effect of 10.6 μm could be longer lasting. Considering these facts, CO2 laser with 10.6 μm was selected for lasing the samples.
Effects of laser irradiation on the pulp were not investigated in the present study. Anić et al. 1992 noted that the use of a continuous wave CO2 laser for 15 s with power output of 6 W and 1 mm spot size caused a temperature rise of 3.5°C. In the present study, the samples were lased at a power output of 5 W with pulse duration of 800 μs, each pulse separated by 100 ms for 15 s. Hence, the irradiation conditions applied here are safe.
The test and control samples were evaluated for relative acid resistance by wet chemical analysis using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometer. The resultant calcium levels were taken into consideration to calculate the Weight of Enamel (WE) etched away, enamel depth penetration. The use of calcium levels as a parameter to evaluate the acid resistance of tooth enamel has also been studied by Tagomori and Morioka 1989, Kakade et al. 1996.
As compared to the control group, i.e., Group A samples, Group B (1.23% APF Group) samples showed a reduction in enamel solubility. Enamel weight (WE) etched away for Group B samples was 761.35 ± 64.56 μg. When this was compared with the WE of control group, i.e., 1039.48 ± 86.49 μg, the difference was statistically significant suggesting increased resistance to acid. Other authors who have found increased acid resistance after 1.23% APF treatment are Delbem and Cury 2002.
After the use of low power surgical laser system (5 J/cm2), WE of samples in Group C was 802.11 ± 43.53 μg which was significantly less than that of Group A samples, i.e., 1039.48 ± 86.49 μg. Significant resistance to acid attack after exposure to low power CO2 laser has also been observed by Esteves-Oliveira et al. 2009.
WE of Group D was 553.25 ± 79.27 μg which was significantly less as compared to control Group, i.e., 1039.48 ± 86.49 μg. Group D exhibiting more acid resistance as compared to other groups. These findings are in agreement with Flaitz et al. 1995.
Microhardness determinations provide indirect evidence of mineral loss or gain, i.e., demineralization or remineralization of enamel. Two types of hardness measurement techniques have been used in the past to evaluate demineralization and remineralization of enamel.
- Cross-sectional microhardness: The indenter load is parallel to the polished tissue surface
- Surface microhardness: The indenter load is perpendicular to the polished tissue surface.
The results obtained by cross-sectional microhardness measurements are accurate. It has been observed that there is a linear relation between the Knoop hardness number of the enamel and the mineral concentration.
The method of surface microhardness measurement is widely used because of its simplicity. It has the advantage which allows evaluation of the enamel slabs before and after the experimental period as it is nondestructive. Whereas, cross-sectional microhardness is a destructive method as sections are prepared and the sample is destroyed. Multiple evaluations of the same slab are not possible with cross-sectional microhardness. In the present study, Vickers indenter was used because of unavailability of the Knoop indenter. The main difference between the Knoop and Vickers hardness measurement is the indentation length. For an indentation length of approximately 100 μm the Knoop indenter penetrates about 3.5 μm, whereas the Vickers indenter reaches a depth of about 14 μm.
In the present study, the mean surface microhardness values of Groups A, B, C, and D were 320.60 ± 9.21, 320.60 ± 7.89, 318.60 ± 10.92, and 321.807 ± 0.22 respectively before the study period. After a study period of 4 weeks, the mean surface microhardness values of groups A, B, C, and D were reduced to 112 ± 4.30, 165.60 ± 4.77, 167.40 ± 6.58, and 224.80 ± 6.61. Difference between microhardness values before and after study period was 208.60 ± 8.50, 155 ± 11.68, 151.2 ± 14.39, and 97 ± 2 in Group A, B, C, and D, respectively. This difference in microhardness was statistically significant and suggestive of there were maximum inhibition of mineral loss from enamel slabs of Group D followed by Group C and Group B.
These findings are in agreement with, Rodrigues et al. Authors assessed in situ effect of a Transversely Excited Atmospheric pressure CO2 laser (wavelength 9.6 um) and the use of fluoridated dentifrice on enamel demineralization. Results suggested that the specimen treated with laser and/or fluoridated dentifrice presented a significantly lower mineral loss.
PLM has been used in the past to evaluate the demineralization and remineralization of carious lesions of enamel qualitatively as well as quantitatively by Bertassoni et al.
All crystals and anisotropic materials except cubic materials exhibit the property of birefringence. This means that when an unpolarized beam of light enters such a crystal or materials, it spills into two plane polarized rays – the ordinary and extraordinary rays – vibrating at right angles to each other. For these two rays, the material exhibits two different refractive indices; no and ne, respectively. The birefringence is then calculated by the difference (ne-no) 10.
In enamel, the total birefringence is the sum of intrinsic and form birefringence. Intrinsic birefringence is due to the mineral content of the tooth whereas; form birefringence is due to the porosities of the enamel filled with a medium having a refractive index different from that of the mineral. When sections of demineralized enamel are imbibed in water and viewed under polarized light, the subsurface lesion appears positively birefringent, and the surface zone appears negatively birefringent.
The mean depth of demineralized lesions in enamel slabs was 220.60 ± 7.02 μm, 160.60 ± 5.73 μm, 167.20 ± 5.45 μm, and 120.20 ± 5.07 μm in Group A, Group B, Group C, and Group D, respectively. Among all the groups, Group D showed the least depth of demineralized lesion suggestive of maximum inhibition to mineral loss followed by Group B and Group C. These findings are in agreement with the following studies. Oliveira et al. (2009) evaluated the effect of APF application time (1 and 4 min) on caries-like lesion formation in enamel, and the results showed that APF treatment before lesion formation resulted in a significant reduction in lesion depth.
| Conclusion|| |
Low power CO2 laser treatment and topically applied 1.23% APF used individually or in combination, inhibits subsequent mineral loss in an in situ high caries challenge situation. In particular, the combined use of this specific laser treatment plus fluoride was more successful than either laser treatment or fluoride alone in the inhibition of mineral loss in the mouth. The results of this study also suggest that the combination of low power laser treatment with fluoride therapy may be effective as a caries inhibition treatment. However, safety parameters for CO2 laser in terms of frequency, pulse duration, energy output, time of application, along with effect on pulp needs to be carefully studied and established, and more in situ and in vivo studies need to carry out in the same context. Nevertheless, synergistic effect of CO2 laser and topically applied fluoride can be the solution for the effective control of the disease process – “Dental Caries.”
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Frencken JE, Peters MC, Manton DJ, Leal SC, Gordan VV, Eden E. Minimal intervention dentistry for managing dental caries – A review: Report of a FDI task group. Int Dent J 2012;62:223-43.
Fejerskov O. Changing paradigms in concepts on dental caries: Consequences for oral health care. Caries Res 2004;38:182-91.
Jha V, Garcia-Garcia G, Iseki K, Li Z, Naicker S, Plattner B, et al.
Chronic kidney disease: Global dimension and perspectives. Lancet 2013;382:260-72.
Kamen MD, Kamen MD. Radiant Science, Dark Politics: A Memoir of the Nuclear Age. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press; 1985.
Booth JM, Mitropoulos CM, Worthington HV. A comparison between the dental health of 3-year-old children living in fluoridated huddersfield and non-fluoridated dewsbury in 1989. Community Dent Health 1992;9:151-7.
Blinkhorn AS, Attwood D, Gavin G, O'Hickey S. Joint epidemiological survey on dental health of 12-year-old school children in dublin and glasgow. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1992;20:307-8.
Dibby BG. Use of fluorine in prevention of dental caries; a consideration of the effectiveness of various fluoride mixtures. J Am Dent Assoc 1947;34:26-32.
Rozier RG. Effectiveness of methods used by dental professionals for the primary prevention of dental caries. J Dent Educ 2001;65:1063-72.
Yiu CK, King NM. An overview of dental cariespreventives approaches for children. Hong Kong Dent J 2011;8:29-39.
Benediktsson S, Retief DH, Bradley EL, Switzer P. The effect of contact time of acidulated phosphate fluoride on fluoride concentration in human enamel. Arch Oral Biol 1982;27:567-72.
Stern RH, Sognnaes RF, Goodman F. Laser effect on in vitro
enamel permeability and solubility. J Am Dent Assoc 1966;73:838-43.
Nelson DG, Wefel JS, Jongebloed WL, Featherstone JD. Morphology, histology and crystallography of human dental enamel treated with pulsed low-energy infrared laser radiation. Caries Res 1987;21:411-26.
Kantorowitz Z, Featherstone JD, Fried D. Caries prevention by CO2 laser treatment: Dependency on the number of pulses used. J Am Dent Assoc 1998;129:585-91.
Featherstone JD, Barrett-Vespone NA, Fried D, Kantorowitz Z, Seka W. CO2 laser inhibitor of artificial caries-like lesion progression in dental enamel. J Dent Res 1998;77:1397-403.
Lakshmi A, Shobha D, Lakshminarayanan L. Prevention of caries by pulsed CO2 laser pre-treatment of enamel: An in vitro
study. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2001;19:152-6.
Meurman JH, Hemmerlé J, Voegel JC, Rauhamaa-Mäkinen R, Luomanen M. Transformation of hydroxyapatite to fluorapatite by irradiation with high-energy CO2 laser. Caries Res 1997;31:397-400.
Tagomori S, Morioka T. Combined effects of laser and fluoride on acid resistance of human dental enamel (with 1 color plate). Caries Res 1989;23:225-31.
McCormack SM, Fried D, Featherstone JD, Glena RE, Seka W. Scanning electron microscope observations of CO2 laser effects on dental enamel. J Dent Res 1995;74:1702-8.
Esteves-Oliveira M, Pasaporti C, Heussen N, Eduardo CP, Lampert F, Apel C, et al.
Rehardening of acid-softened enamel and prevention of enamel softening through CO2 laser irradiation. J Dent 2011;39:414-21.
Rodrigues LK, Nobre Dos Santos M, Featherstone JD. In situ
mineral loss inhibition by CO2 laser and fluoride. J Dent Res 2006;85:617-21.
Kantorowitz Z, Featherstone J, Fried D. Augmentation of CO2-laser inhibition of in vitro
caries by fluoride (Abstract no. 63). J Dent Res 1996;75:25.
Viraparia P, White JM, Vaderhobli RM. CO2 Laser: Evidence Based Applications in Dentistry. CO2 Laser-Optimisation and Application. San Francisco, USA: InTech; 2012.
Abramchayeva M, Madison A, Perez ZA, Stemp E. Effect of single base bulges on oxidative DNA-protein crosslinking. FASEB J 2010;24:651.1-1.
Paes Leme AF, Dalcico R, Tabchoury CP, Del Bel Cury AA, Rosalen PL, Cury JA, et al. In situ
effect of frequent sucrose exposure on enamel demineralization and on plaque composition after APF application and F
dentifrice use. J Dent Res 2004;83:71-5.
Clarkson JJ, McLoughlin J. Role of fluoride in oral health promotion. Int Dent J 2000;50:119-28.
Jiang H, Bian Z, Tai BJ, Du MQ, Peng B. The effect of a bi-annual professional application of APF foam on dental caries increment in primary teeth: 24-month clinical trial. J Dent Res 2005;84:265-8.
Zuerlein MJ, Fried D, Featherstone JD, Seka W. Optical properties of dental enamel in the mid-IR determined by pulsed photothermal radiometry. IEEE J Sel Top Quantum Electron 1999;5:1083-9.
Fried D, Ragadio J, Akrivou M, Featherstone JD, Murray MW, Dickenson KM. Dental hard tissue modification and removal using sealed transverse excited atmospheric-pressure lasers operating at lambda=9.6 and 10.6 microm. J Biomed Opt 2001;6:231-8.
Hsu CY, Jordan TH, Dederich DN, Wefel JS. Effects of low-energy CO2 laser irradiation and the organic matrix on inhibition of enamel demineralization. J Dent Res 2000;79:1725-30.
Whitters CJ, Strang R. Preliminary investigation of a novel carbon dioxide laser for applications in dentistry. Lasers Surg Med 2000;26:262-9.
Esteves-Oliveira M, Zezell D, Meister J, Franzen R, Stanzel S, Lampert F, et al
. CO2 laser (10.6 μm) parameters for caries prevention in dental enamel. Caries Res 2009;43:261-8.
Fox JL, Yu D, Otsuka M, Higuchi WI, Wong J, Powell G. Combined effects of laser irradiation and chemical inhibitors on the dissolution of dental enamel. Caries Res 1992;26:333-9.
Anić I, Vidović D, Luić M, Tudja M. Laser induced molar tooth pulp chamber temperature changes. Caries Res 1992;26:165-9.
Kakade A, Damle SG, Bhavsar JP, Chatterjee V, Deb P. Combined effect of carbon-dioxide laser and neutral 2% NaF on acid resistance of human tooth enamel. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 1996;14:26-30.
Delbem AC, Cury JA. Effect of application time of APF and NaF gels on microhardness and fluoride uptake of in vitro
enamel caries. Am J Dent 2002;15:169-72.
Flaitz CM, Hicks MJ, Westerman GH, Berg JH, Blankenau RJ, Powell GL. Argon laser irradiation and acidulated phosphate fluoride treatment in caries-like lesion formation in enamel: An in vitro
study. Pediatr Dent 1995;17:31-5.
Rueda Velazquez OC. Electrochemical Assement of Innovative Pretreatments for Automotive Painting on Aluminium; 2012.
Bertassoni LE, Habelitz S, Kinney JH, Marshall SJ, Marshall GW Jr. Biomechanical perspective on the remineralization of dentin. Caries Res 2009;43:70-7.
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7], [Table 8], [Table 9], [Table 10], [Table 11]
| Article Access Statistics|
| Viewed||202 |
| Printed||3 |
| Emailed||0 |
| PDF Downloaded||47 |
| Comments ||[Add] |