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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 481-485
An in vitro comparative evaluation of volume of removed dentin, canal transportation, and centering ratio of 2Shape, WaveOne Gold, and ProTaper Gold files using cone-beam computed tomography


1 Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Vyas Dental College and Hospital, Rajasthan University of Health Sciences, Jodhpur, Rajasthan
2 Department of Pediatric Dentistry, King Khaled Hospital Al Kharj, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
3 Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Seema Dental College and Hospital, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India
4 Department of Restorative Dentistry, College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
5 Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Maharana Pratap College of Dentistry and Research Centre, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India
6 Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, MES Dental College, Perinthalmanna, Kerala, India

Date of Submission26-Dec-2018
Date of Acceptance08-Feb-2019
Date of Web Publication30-Sep-2019

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Shalini Singh
Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Vyas Dental College and Hospital, Rajasthan University of Health Sciences, Jodhpur
Rajasthan
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_444_18

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   Abstract 

Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the shaping ability of three file systems – 2Shape (2S), WaveOne Gold (WOG), and ProTaper Gold – using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and  Methods: Fortyfive freshly extracted mandibular teeth were chosen and instrumented using the following brands of NiTi files: 2S, WOG, and ProTaper Gold. Pre- and postinstrumentation CBCT imaging was performed to measure mesial and distal distance of the dentin walls and calculate the volume of removed dentin, apical transportation, and centering ratio. A statistical analysis of the data was performed using independent ttest. Statistical significance was set at 5%. Results: There were no significant differences between the 2S and WOG in terms of the total volume of removed dentin, apical transportation, and centering ratio, whereas ProTaper showed a greater significant difference when compared to 2S and WOG. Conclusion: Both 2S and WOG maintained the original canal anatomy better and did not remove excess dentin while chemomechanical preparation as compared to ProTaper Gold. Instruments that use rotary movement achieved an effect similar to that of the reciprocating instruments in relation to change in angle. 2S which is a two-file system and WOG which is a single-file system might perform better clinically and might show enhanced shaping ability with less canal transportation and more centered preparation when compared to ProTaper Gold that is a multiple file-system.


Keywords: 2Shape, apical transportation, centering ratio, ProTaper Gold, volume of removed dentin, WaveOne Gold


How to cite this article:
Singh S, Abdul MS, Sharma U, Sainudeen S, Jain C, Kalliath JT. An in vitro comparative evaluation of volume of removed dentin, canal transportation, and centering ratio of 2Shape, WaveOne Gold, and ProTaper Gold files using cone-beam computed tomography. J Int Soc Prevent Communit Dent 2019;9:481-5

How to cite this URL:
Singh S, Abdul MS, Sharma U, Sainudeen S, Jain C, Kalliath JT. An in vitro comparative evaluation of volume of removed dentin, canal transportation, and centering ratio of 2Shape, WaveOne Gold, and ProTaper Gold files using cone-beam computed tomography. J Int Soc Prevent Communit Dent [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 Dec 13];9:481-5. Available from: http://www.jispcd.org/text.asp?2019/9/5/481/268334



   Introduction Top


The introduction of NiTi rotary instrumentation has revolutionized the endodontics in the past few decades with predictable success. The rotary files have been subjected to constant evaluation in the form of metallurgy, design features, the number of instruments, and the manner in which these instruments are driven (rotary/reciprocation).[1] Various rotary NiTi endodontic file systems have been introduced to improve shaping ability.

It is generally accepted that the excessive removal of dentin compromises the survival of rootfilled teeth and that the strength of endodontically treated teeth is directly related to the amount of remaining sound tooth structure.[2],[3]

Recently introduced 2Shape (2S) NiTi rotary file is made of NiTi alloy called Twire. 2S has a sequence with two instruments: TS1 (#25, 0.04) and TS2 (#25, 0.06).[4]

ProTaper Gold (PG) works on rotating motion and is made of NiTi alloy called Mwire which is considered to feature a progressively tapered design that claimed to improve the cutting efficiency and safety.[5]

Yared proposed a new technique employing reciprocating movements using just one instrument;[6] chemomechanical preparation with reciprocating motion has been postulated to reduce the possibility of unexpected file fractures. WaveOne Gold (WOG) Gwire technology is available in four sizes: small (#20,0.07), primary (#25,0.07), medium (#35,0.06), and large (#45,0.05).[7]

There is paucity of literature comparing the shaping ability of 2S, WOG, and ProTaper Gold. Therefore, this study was planned. The null hypothesis tested is that the new manufacturing methods and type of rotary motion will not have any effect on their shaping ability of root canals.


   Materials and Methods Top


In the present study, ethical clearance was obtained from the Ethical Committee of Vyas Dental College and Hospital with reference no. VDCH/IEC/24/2017. Forty-five mesiobuccalroots of extracted mandibular first molar teeth with completely formed apices were collected and stored in saline solution. All teeth were evaluated radiovisiographically to rule out any calcification. Preinstrumentation cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanning was done. Teeth having root curvature ranging from 25° to 30° were selected. Canal curvature was assessed by Schneider’s technique, and the samples were standardized.[8] Access cavities were prepared with EndoAccess bur (Dentsply Maillefer), and the root canals were negotiated using #10 K-file (Dentsply, Maillefer, Switzerland). The distal roots with the respective part of the crown were sectioned at the furcation level using a lowspeed diamond bur under water and discarded. The working length was determined by inserting #10 K-file to root canal terminus and subtracting 1 mm from this measurement, which was then confirmed using an electronic apex locator.

The teeth were randomly divided into three experimental groups (n = 15).

In Group 1 (n = 15), teeth were prepared with 2S, in a sequence TS1 (25/0.04)>TS2 (25/0.06) according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

In Group 2 (n = 15), ProTaper Gold in the sequence S1>SX>S1>S2>F1>F2 (25/0.08) was used for shaping according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

In Group 3 (n = 15), WOG was instrumented with the primary file (25/0.07) (Dentsply Maillefer, Switzerland) in reciprocating motion (clockwise 140° and counterclockwise 45°).

The final apical preparation was standardized for all specimens at size 25. Instrumentation was done using Glyde (Dentsply Maillefer) as a lubricating agent. The canals were irrigated with 2mL of 5% sodium hypochlorite during instrumentation followed by 1mL of 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid for 3min and a final irrigation with 2mL of saline solution. Each instrument was used to prepare three canals, and then, the files were discarded. Teeth were then scanned under the same conditions followed for the initial scan, and the data were analyzed.

Cone-beam computed tomography analysis

Pre- and postinstrumentation measurements of MB canals were calculated [Figure 1]ac. The volume of removed dentine was measured in mm3 for each root canal by subtracting the uninstrumented canal volume from the instrumented canal volume.[8] Canal transportation and centering ratio were calculated at three crosssection levels, i.e., 3, 5, and 7 mm, from the apical end of the root using the following equation:
Figure 1: (a) Pre- and postinstrumentation cone-beam computed tomography images at 3 mm level. (b) Pre- and postinstrumentation cone-beam computed tomography images at 5 mm level. (c) Pre- and postinstrumentation cone-beam computed tomography images at 7 mm level

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Degree of canal transportation: mesiodistally = (m1 − m2) − (d1 − d2)

Canal centering ratio = (m1 − m2)/(d1 − d2) or (d1 − d2)/(m1 − m2)

Mesial (m1) is the shortest distance from the mesial edge of the root to the mesial edge of the uninstrumented canal. Distal (d1) is the shortest distance from the distal edge of the root to the distal edge of the uninstrumented canal.

m2 is the shortest distance from the mesial edge of the root to the mesial edge of the instrumented canal. d2 is the shortest distance from the distal edge of the root to the distal edge of the instrumented canal.

Statistical analysis

A statistical analysis (SPSS 15.0; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) of the data was performed using independent ttest. The statistical significance level was set at P < 0.05.


   Results Top


Volume Of Removed Dentine

The significant difference is noted between 2S and ProTaper Gold, WOG, and ProTaper Gold, whereas no statistically significant difference was seen between 2S and WOG [Graph 1].
Graph 1: Mean ± standard deviation of volume of removed dentine (mm3) for tested groups and statistical analysis

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Canal Transportation

The significant difference was seen among the three groups at all the levels: 3 mm, 5 mm, and 7 mm. ProTaper Gold showed maximum canal transportation at all the levels, whereas 2S and WOG produced less canal transportation [Graph 2].
Graph 2: Degree of canal transportation mesiodistally for tested groups

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Centering Ratio

At all the levels, 3 mm, 5 mm, and 7 mm ProTaper Gold showed the least centered canal preparation as compared to 2S and WOG [Graph 3].
Graph 3: Centering ratio for tested groups

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2S and WOG file system produced better results as compared to ProTaper Gold [Table 1].
Table 1: The mean and standard deviation values of the canal transportation and centering ratio at the three studied levels (3, 5, and 7 mm) for each tested group

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   Discussion Top


As there is paucity in literature comparing the shaping ability of recently introduced NiTi rotary instruments 2S, WOG and ProTaper gold, recommended for the preparation of curved root canals, one of which is activated by reciprocating movement (WOG) and other two by continuous rotary movement (2S and ProTaper Gold). The following parameters were evaluated: volume of removed dentin, apical transportation, and centering ratio.

The mesiobuccal root of mandibular first molars was chosen as they typically present with remarkable curvatures. The angle of curvature at 25°–30° (according to Schneider’s technique) was preferred as according to the American Association of Endodontists Endodontic Case Difficulty Assessment, it is considered as moderate curvature to obtain results that cover a large scale of cases.[8] The CBCT imaging technique has been used for shaping ability evaluation of the three files as it provides a accurate, reproducible, threedimensional analysis of the alterations which might be present in dentin such as dentin thickness. CBCT also provides root canal volume before and after preparation without causing any damage to the specimens.

To allow a proper action of NiTi instruments that use either a rotary or reciprocating motion, creation of a glide path is essential.[9]

In the present study, curvatures with high susceptibility to iatrogenic mishaps usually exist at these three levels: 3, 5, and 7 mm, which represent the apical, middle, and coronal thirds of the root canals, respectively.[10]

The apical preparation was limited to size 25 file in the present study as the amount of canal transportation increases with apical preparation greater than size 25.[11]

In the present study, ProTaper Gold was reported to have aggressive cutting and excessive volume of dentin removal as compared to 2S and WOG [Graph 1].

At all the levels, 3 mm, 5 mm, and 7 mm, mesiodistally, the transportation is more with ProTaper Gold as compared to 2S and WOG, which was statistically significant [Graph 2] (P < 0.05). This could be attributed to the sequence of ProTaper Gold files S1>SX>S1>S2>F1>F2 (25/0.08) used in circumferential brushing motion and the crosssection of the files, convex triangular crosssection of ProTaper Gold file.

WOG works on the principle of reciprocating motion and is claimed to be able to completely shape and clean root canals with only one single-use instrument. Reverse helix, semiactive and modified guiding tip, and offset parallelogramshaped crosssection limit the engagement zone.[11] Reciprocating movement minimizes torsional and flexural stresses, increases the centering ability of canal, and reduces the taper lock of the instrument within the canal.[12] Hence, WOG reported comparatively less aggressive volume of removed dentin and better centering ratio with less canal transportation.

Ozyurek et al. (2017) conducted an in vitro study on shaping the ability of Reciproc, WOG, and HyFlex EDM singlefile systems in simulated Sshaped canals; it was concluded that all of the tested NiTi files caused various levels of resin removal. However, the WOG and HEDM NiTi files were found to cause a lower level of resin removal than the RPC NiTi files.[13] The results for WOG were in accordance with our study.

At all the levels, 3 mm, 5 mm, and 7 mm, 2S and WOG were reported to have a significant difference in centering ratio as compared to ProTaper Gold [Graph 3] (P < 0.05). 2S and WOG were reported to have a better centering ratio as compared to ProTaper Gold. This could be attributed to the metallurgy of 2S NiTi rotary file which works on rotating motion and is made of NiTi alloy called “Twire” which is a method which allows for an increased resistance to cyclic fatigue (+40%) and a better negotiation of curvatures. The two instruments (TS1 and TS2) return to their original shape after each use. 2S file with the latest generation of the crosssection with triple helix, two primary cutting edges and one secondary cutting edge, aids in perfect compromise between cutting efficiency and debris removal.[4] WOG files are made of a special NiTi alloy called GWire which is created by an innovative thermal treatment process. The benefits of this Gwire NiTi are increased flexibility of the instruments and improved resistance to cyclic fatigue.

Abdullah et al. in an in vitro study compared the shaping ability of ProTaper Gold and WOG system in simulated S and Lshaped canals. The results revealed that there was a highly significant difference noted in preparation; it was concluded that WOG showed better shaping ability with less canal aberrations and faster canal preparation as compared to ProTaper Gold.[14] The results of this study are similar to the results obtained in the current study.

Staffoli et al. conducted a study on simulated teeth with severe curvature and evaluated the centering ability of ProTaper Next and 2S file system. In accordance with the results, it was concluded that there was no significant difference noted in centering ability of ProTaper Next and 2S. Both the file systems showed some degree of canal transportation, especially in the apical third.[15],[16]

In an in vitro study, the lower level of resin removal was reported with the use of HEDM and WOG NiTi files when it was compared to the RPC NiTi files. The results for WOG were in accordance with our study that reported less volume of removed dentin.[17]

As there is paucity in literature on shaping ability of 2S file system, the present study was carried out, and it was reported that 2S file system maintained the original canal anatomy better as compared to ProTaper Gold. Further clinical research is needed to conclude the shaping ability of 2S file system.

The results of volume of removed dentin, canal transportation, and centering ratio at all the levels, 3 mm, 5 mm, and 7 mm, revealed that there was no significant difference between 2S and WOG systems (P > 0.05).


   Conclusion Top


Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that 2S file and WOG had better original canal anatomy with less aggressive dentin cutting and minimal canal transportation as compared to ProTaper Gold file system.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
   References Top

1.
Krishan S, Aggarwal A, Singh K Endodontic rotary systems – A review. J Adv Med Dent Sci Res 2016;4:84-8.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Arora V, Yadav MP, Singh SP, Arora P, Aggarwal A Comparative evaluation of post obturation materials on reinforcement of PeriCervical Dentin (PCD) – An in vitro study. IJTEEE 2015;3:39-43.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Grande NM, Plotino G, Lavorgna L, Ioppolo P, Bedini R, Pameijer CH, et al. Influence of different root canalfilling materials on the mechanical properties of root canal dentin. J Endod 2007;33:859-63.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Micro Mega, France. 2Shape. Available from: http://www.micromega.com/shaping/2shape?lang=en. [Last accessed on 2017 Sep 17].  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Elnaghy AM, Elsaka SE Shaping ability of ProTaper gold and ProTaper universal files by using conebeam computed tomography. Indian J Dent Res 2016;27:37-41.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Yared G Canal preparation using only one Ni Ti rotary instrument: Preliminary observations. Int Endod J 2008;41:339-44.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties. WaveOne Gold. Available from: https://www.Dentsply.com/content/dam/dentsply/pim/manufacturer/Endodontics/Obturation/Gutta_Percha_Points/WaveOne_Gold_Gutta_Percha_Points/W1G_Brochure_EN.pdf. [Last accessed on 2016 Oct 14].  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Hartmann MS, Barletta FB, Camargo Fontanella VR, Vanni JR Canal transportation after root canal instrumentation: A comparative study with computed tomography. J Endod 2007;33:962-5.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Schneider SW A comparison of canal preparations in straight and curved root canals. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1971;32:271-5.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Michetti J, Maret D, Mallet JP, Diemer F Validation of cone beam computed tomography as a tool to explore root canal anatomy. J Endod 2010;36:1187-90.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Webber J Shaping canals with confidence: WaveOne GOLD singlefile reciprocating system. Int Dent Afr Ed 2016;6:6-17.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Guillén RE, Nabeshima CK, CaballeroFlores H, Cayón MR, Mercadé M, Cai S, et al. Evaluation of the waveOne gold and one shape new generation in reducing enterococcus faecalis from root canal. Braz Dent J 2018;29:249-53.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Ozyurek T, Yılmaz K, Uslu G Shaping ability of reciproc, WaveOne GOLD, and hyFlex EDM singlefile systems in simulated Sshaped canals. J Endod 2017;43:805-9.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Abdullah A, Mohammad A, Thomas S, Abdul M Shaping ability of ProTaper gold and WaveOne gold nickeltitanium rotary file in different canal configurations. Saudi Endod J 2018;8:202-7.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Staffoli S, Ozyurek T, Hadad A, Lvovsky A, Solomonov M, Azizi H, et al. Comparison of shaping ability of ProTaper next and 2Shape nickel–titanium files in simulated severe curved canals. G Ital Endod 2018;32:52-6.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Rubio J, Zarzosa JI, Pallarés A Comparison of shaping ability of 10 rotary and reciprocating systems: An in vitro study with AutoCad. Acta Stomatol Croat 2017;51:207-16.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Surakanti JR, Punna R, Vanapatla A, Vemisetty H, Sajja NP, Nidumukkala TP, et al. Comparative evaluation of cleaning ability of reciproc and waveonegold reciprocating file systems – A scanning electron microscopic study. Indian J Dent Sci 2018;10:98-101.  Back to cited text no. 17
  [Full text]  


    Figures

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