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Effect of weight reduction on the serum adiponectin and tumor necrosis factor-α levels and the clinical parameters of obese patients with and without periodontal disease


 Department of Periodontics, MR Ambedkar Dental College and Hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Lalith Vivekananda,
Department of Periodontics, MR Ambedkar Dental Collage and Hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_447_18

Objective: The objective of the current study was to assess the impact of weight reduction on the attenuation of obesity-related periodontal inflammation. Methods: This study was conducted enrolling 60 obese subjects. They were divided into three groups of 20 each. Group 1-healthy group, Group 2-gingivitis group, and Group 3-periodontitis group. The body mass index and waist/hip ratio, periodontal parameters such as plaque index, bleeding index, full mouth periodontal probing depth (PPD) using the University of North Carolina 15 (UNC 15) probe and full mouth clinical attachment loss (CAL) with cementoenamel junction as the reference using UNC 15 probe was evaluated at baseline and after the attainment of ≥10% weight loss by the subjects. Adiponectin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels were measured in the serum at baseline and after attainment of ≥10% reduction in weight in a period of 3-18 months. Results: Adherence to weight reduction program until the achievement of ≥10% reduction in body weight resulted in statistically significant (P < 0.0001) elevated serum adiponectin and reduced serum TNF-α levels in all three groups. Furthermore, elevations of adiponectin following weight reduction showed significant negative correlations with PPD in all the three groups and in patients with periodontitis, (Group 3) serum adiponectin levels showed significant negative correlations ( P = 0.0001) with CAL in Group 3. Conclusions: Controlling obesity presents a good opportunity to alleviate the burden of periodontal disease. Simple weight reduction programs with diet and exercise-related lifestyle modifications may be an efficacious and barrier-free option.


    
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