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REVIEW ARTICLE
Applications of teledentistry: A literature review and update
ND Jampani, R Nutalapati, B. S. K. Dontula, R Boyapati
July-December 2011, 1(2):37-44
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.97695  PMID:24478952
Teledentistry is a combination of telecommunications and dentistry involving the exchange of clinical information and images over remote distances for dental consultation and treatment planning. Teledentistry has the ability to improve access to oral healthcare, improve the delivery of oral healthcare, and lower its costs. It also has the potential to eliminate the disparities in oral health care between rural and urban communities. This article reviews the origin, rationale, scope, basis, and requirements for teledentistry, along with the current evidence that exists in the literature. This article also reviews the ethical and legal issues related to the practice of teledentistry and the future of this alternative and innovative method of delivering dental care.
  10,899 781 6
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Comparative evaluation of ultraviolet and microwave sanitization techniques for toothbrush decontamination
SK Gujjari, AK Gujjari, PV Patel, PV Shubhashini
January-June 2011, 1(1):20-26
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.86383  PMID:24478949
Background : Toothbrushes are rapidly contaminated with different microorganisms representing a possible cause of infection or reinfection especially in the periodontal patients under therapy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sanitization of toothbrushes previously contaminated by various oral microorganisms using a domestic microwave oven and commercial ultraviolet (UV) light toothbrush sanitizer. Materials and Methods : Thirty male dental graduates were randomly assigned to control or experimental groups and received standardized toothbrushes for home use. Each subject was instructed to use it with the standardized modified Bass technique for 1 week and submit it to the investigator after use. Collected toothbrushes were cultured and analyzed for the number of colony-forming units (CFUs). In the next phase, once again a new set of toothbrush was given to each subject and instructed to use it for one more week and follow the same instructions as given earlier. Subsequently, the used toothbrushes were again collected and were sanitized by microwave irradiation, UV radiation, or were not sanitized (control group). After the sanitization procedure, toothbrushes were again cultured for the number of CFUs. The collected data of the presanitized and postsanitized CFU count were log transformed to normalize their distributions prior to analysis. Furthermore, log CFU data were compared and analyzed by one-way ANOVA, Tukey's post hoc procedure, and paired t-test for the difference in the mean at P<0.05. Results : Result showed that after the sanitization procedure, there was a significant (P<0.001) reduction in microbial contamination in both microwave and UV group toothbrushes compared to control group toothbrushes whereas the microbial count in the microwave group was significantly less (P<0.001) compared to the UV group. Conclusions : The evidence presented in this study suggests that microwave irradiation is an effective disinfectant agent for bacteria and fungi on toothbrushes.
  9,486 479 4
REVIEW ARTICLES
Maiden morsel - feeding in cleft lip and palate infants
E Sree Devi, AJ Sai Sankar, MG Manoj Kumar, B Sujatha
July-December 2012, 2(2):31-37
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.109350  PMID:24478964
Cleft lip and cleft palate are the most common craniofacial anomalies that have an incidence of 0.28 to 3.74 per 1000 live births globally. Due to the great advancements in the field of medical science, these anomalies can today be corrected. However, it cannot be ignored that the parents of these patients may face psychological stress due to the cleft defects in the baby. Also, these conditions may cause financial difficulties to the parents and cause anxiety to the mother about the proper feeding of their infant. Feeding problems can range from excessive air intake to failure to thrive. As the management of such cases is lengthy and includes a multi-disciplinary team approach, it is the role of the Pediatrician/Pedodontist to educate the mother about the proper feeding techniques. In this article, we have reviewed and highlighted the various traditional and advanced devices and techniques which help in the successful management of these individuals.
  6,811 382 2
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
The efficacy of antiseptic mouth rinses in comparison with dental floss in controlling interproximal gingivitis
H Mythri, SR Ananda, GM Prashant, VV Subba Reddy, GN Chandu
January-June 2011, 1(1):31-35
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.86385  PMID:24478951
Objectives : Maintaining good oral hygiene is important to combat periodontal diseases. The use of tooth brush alone does not serve the purpose, especially in inaccessible areas like proximal embrasures, which demand the use of some adjuncts like proximal cleaning aids. Hence, the objective of this study was to compare the clinical efficacy of two antimicrobial mouth rinses (Cool mint Listerine and 0.2% Chlorhexidine gluconate) with dental floss in reducing interproximal gingivitis and dental plaque in an unsupervised condition. Materials and Methods : A randomized, controlled, single-blind (observer), parallel-group clinical trial in accordance with the ADA guidelines was conducted for a period of 6 months. Four index age groups (12, 15, 35-44, and 65-74 years) were divided into four groups, i.e., brushing, brushing and flossing, brushing and rinsing with Listerine, and brushing and rinsing with Chlorhexidine, so that each group comprised 40 subjects. Interproximal gingivitis and dental plaque were assessed using Modified Gingival Index, Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman modified Quigley-Hein Plaque Index and Gingival Bleeding Index. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for multiple group comparisons, followed by Tukey's post hoc for group-wise comparisons. Results : Chlorhexidine and Listerine showed significant reduction in plaque and gingivitis level compared to others, the activity of Chlorhexidine being more significant. Conclusions : The level of interproximal gingivitis control efficacy provided by the Listerine and Chlorhexidine was "at least as good as" that provided by the dental floss. Hence, they can be recommended for the patients with gingivitis as an adjunctive to the usual home care routine.
  6,704 466 1
Evaluating dental awareness and periodontal health status in different socioeconomic groups in the population of Sundernagar, Himachal Pradesh, India
DK Gautam, J Vikas, T Amrinder, T Rambhika, K Bhanu
July-December 2012, 2(2):53-57
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.109367  PMID:24478968
Context: Survey. Aims: To evaluate dental awareness and periodontal health status in different socioeconomic groups in the population of Sundernagar, Himachal Pradesh, India. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study. Malerials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 300 patients with different socioeconomic status who visited Himachal Dental College, Sundernagar, and Dental OPD of the Civil Hospital, Sundernagar. Mouth mirror, CPI probe, and illuminated light source were used for examination. Periodontal health status was recorded using CPI index. Information about their lifestyle, education level, and socioeconomic status was recorded using a questionnaire and correlated with the periodontal status. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square test. Results: Majority of the subjects used toothbrush and toothpaste to clean their teeth once daily. Lower socioeconomic groups exhibited higher CPI scores characterized by bleeding gums and calculus deposition. The differences were statistically significant across various social strata (P < 0.01). Conclusions: The utilization of the questionnaire on dental awareness facilitates the inclusion of multiple aspects of patient information. The study revealed that oral hygiene awareness and periodontal condition were significantly associated with socioeconomic status. The socioeconomic status and oral hygiene practices were significantly associated with CPI (P < 0.01).
  6,235 187 3
Professional practice among woman dentist
SK Pallavi, GC Rajkumar
January-June 2011, 1(1):14-19
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.86376  PMID:24478948
Objective : This review aims to give an inside view of professional career of a women dentist, addresses the unique demands of being a woman dentist, and highlight ways to address these issues. Materials and Methods : The Medline database, scholarly literature, and informal literature were considered for this review. Results : Working hours of female dentists do not differ significantly from the working hours of their male counterparts, until they have children. The female dentists' working hours showed a distinct drop as soon as they started a family. It was also found that women dentists are more likely to take career break. It is clear that childrearing and family responsibilities have a great impact on women's working life. Significant differences between males and females in work title and specialization were evident in an academic institution. Due to the societal orientation which regards women as primarily home makers, the responsibilities for family caretaking continues to fall disproportionately on women, and this fact could explain why women abandon their careers in the advanced stages. Conclusions : Efforts should be made to identify and reduce barriers to women's advancement in dentistry.
  5,007 458 2
REVIEW ARTICLES
Smoking and dental implants
V Kasat, R Ladda
July-December 2012, 2(2):38-41
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.109358  PMID:24478965
Smoking is a prevalent behaviour in the population. The aim of this review is to bring to light the effects of smoking on dental implants. These facts will assist dental professionals when implants are planned in tobacco users. A search of "PubMed" was made with the key words "dental implant," "nicotine," "smoking," "tobacco," and "osseointegration." Also, publications on tobacco control by the Government of India were considered. For review, only those articles published from 1988 onward in English language were selected. Smoking has its influence on general as well as oral health of an individual. Tobacco negatively affects the outcome of almost all therapeutic procedures performed in the oral cavity. The failure rate of implant osseointegration is considerably higher among smokers, and maintenance of oral hygiene around the implants and the risk of peri-implantitis are adversely affected by smoking. To increase implant survival in smokers, various protocols have been recommended. Although osseointegrated dental implants have become the state of the art for tooth replacement, they are not without limitations or complications. In this litigious era, it is extremely important that the practitioner clearly understands and is able and willing to convey the spectrum of possible complications and their frequency to the patients.
  5,109 335 8
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Dental caries experience and salivary Streptococcus mutans, lactobacilli scores, salivary flow rate, and salivary buffering capacity among 6-year-old Indian school children
B Sakeenabi, SS Hiremath
July-December 2011, 1(2):45-51
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.97697  PMID:24478953
Context: Dental caries is a disease of multifactorial etiology. A variety of potential predictors have been examined for the association with caries increments in longitudinal and cross-sectional studies. Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the possible relationship among salivary cariogenic microflora, buffer capacity, secretion rate, and caries experience among 6-year-old school-going children in Davangere city, India. Settings and Design: A total of 196 6-year-old school children were selected by a two-stage random sampling method. Materials and Methods: Parents were interrogated regarding sociodemographic details. Clinical examination of children was conducted to assess dental caries experience, and stimulated saliva was collected to assess S. mutans levels, lactobacilli, salivary flow, and buffering capacity of saliva. Statistical Analysis: The difference in proportions was tested using Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by the Mann-Whitney U-test for intragroup comparison, and the difference in mean was tested using ANOVA and independent sample t-test as necessary. Caries experience was correlated with salivary factors using Spearman's correlation coefficient. Results: Out of 196 children, 96 were boys and 100 were girls. Overall, 97 (49.49%) children were caries free (dmft, DMFT = 0) and 99 (50.51%) children presented with caries (dmft, DMFT>0). The mean dmft and dmfs score for the overall group was 3.20 and 5.43, respectively. The mean DMFT and DMFS score was 0.23 and 0.25, respectively. A highly significant correlation was seen between mean the caries score and salivary variables. Conclusions: High levels of salivary microbiological counts in correlation with the caries data stress the importance of these factors and urge the necessity of elective preventive programs in this region.
  4,932 451 5
REVIEW ARTICLES
Halitosis: A frequently ignored social condition
KL Veeresha, M Bansal, V Bansal
January-June 2011, 1(1):9-13
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.86374  PMID:24478947
Halitosis is a common complaint of one third of the population. It is commonly known as 'bad breath'. The causes of halitosis can both be intraoral (90%) as well as extraoral (10%). Malodor of oral etiology results from the oral cavity itself. Non oral etiology may include various systemic diseases and use of certain drugs. Halitosis can act as a biomarker for various systemic diseases. Organoleptic examination, gas chromatography and portable sulfide monitors are the common methods of measurement of halitosis. Brushing twice daily with tongue cleaning can sufficiently manage halitosis in majority of the population while antimicrobial oral rinses can be prescribed to the non respondents. Necessary investigations and treatment should follow for those having extra oral cause of halitosis.
  4,771 553 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Prevalence of early childhood caries among preschool children of low socioeconomic status in Bangalore city, India
HR Priyadarshini, SS Hiremath, M Puranik, SM Rudresh, T Nagaratnamma
January-June 2011, 1(1):27-30
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.86384  PMID:24478950
Aim : To assess the prevalence of Early Childhood Caries (ECC) among preschool children of low socio- economic status in Bangalore city, India. Materials and Methods : A cross-sectional study was carried out among 566, 24-59 months old children attending various Anganwadi centers in Bangalore city, India, selected via cluster sampling. Caries experience was recorded using deft index (Greubbell, 1944). t Test, ANOVA, and Chi-square tests were used to find significant differences. P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results : Prevalence of Early Childhood Caries (ECC) was 37.3% with a mean deft of 1.90 ± 3.38 ranging from 0 to 17 teeth. Out of 211 children with ECC, 94.3% had severe Early Childhood Caries (s-ECC) with a mean deft score of 5.35 ± 3.77. All of the deft was due to untreated caries. Mean caries experience of 36-47 months age group was significantly higher than other groups (P = 0.024). Conclusions : The present study showed a 37.3% prevalence of ECC. There is a need for preventive and curative oral health programs in this section of the society.
  4,370 590 6
Comparative evaluation of a herbal mouthwash (Freshol) with chlorhexidine on plaque accumulation, gingival inflammation, and salivary Streptococcus mutans growth
Shivika Mehta, Sudha Pesapathy, Madonna Joseph, Prabhat K Tiwari, Saurabh Chawla
January-June 2013, 3(1):25-28
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.115717  PMID:24478976
Introduction: Plaque accumulation and oral microorganisms are the main predisposing factors to various orodental infections and targeting these, therefore, can prove to be an effective way of combating these diseases. Herbal extracts have been of particular interest these days owing to various side effects associated with conventional modes of treatment. Aims and Objectives: The present study was conducted to compare the efficacy of a commercially available homeopathic mouthwash with chlorhexidine on plaque status, gingival status, and salivary Streptococcus mutans count. Materials and Methods: Total sample of 55 children, aged 8-14 years, were randomly divided into two groups. Group A (35) and Group B (20) were given 10 mL of test mouthwash "Freshol" and chlorhexidine respectively during phases 1 and 3 of the clinical trial which was of 10 days each. Phase 2 of 14 days in between was the washout period during which no mouthwash was given. Result: Freshol was found to be better than chlorhexidine in reducing the salivary mutans streptococci count and equieffective to chlorhexidine in altering plaque and gingival scores. Conclusion: Herbal alternatives can prove to be an effective and safe alternative to conventional modes of treatment.
  4,381 316 1
REVIEW ARTICLES
Practical problems in use of sugar substitutes in preventive dentistry
NM Roshan, B Sakeenabi
January-June 2011, 1(1):1-8
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.86373  PMID:24478946
Sugar (sucrose) being most acceptable sweetening agent in use by mankind is considered as the "Arch Criminal" in dental caries initiation. Search for suitable sweetening agent which will satisfy all the characteristics of sugar along with being non-cariogenic is going on since decades. At this given point of time, there is no such substitute which will replace sugar in all aspects, but, cariogenic potential can certainly be reduced by using sugar substitutes. Recently, few sugar substitutes are even considered to have antimicrobial property against caries producing microbes in oral cavity. Although sweetening agents and sugar substitutes are available in market in various forms, how acceptable are they?, what are the public perceptions regarding their use?, and their use in caries prevention are few areas still very much unclear
  4,070 627 -
Biofilm in endodontics: A review
Kapil Jhajharia, Abhishek Parolia, K Vikram Shetty, Lata Kiran Mehta
January-February 2015, 5(1):1-12
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.151956  PMID:25767760
Endodontic disease is a biofilm-mediated infection, and primary aim in the management of endodontic disease is the elimination of bacterial biofilm from the root canal system. The most common endodontic infection is caused by the surface-associated growth of microorganisms. It is important to apply the biofilm concept to endodontic microbiology to understand the pathogenic potential of the root canal microbiota as well as to form the basis for new approaches for disinfection. It is foremost to understand how the biofilm formed by root canal bacteria resists endodontic treatment measures. Bacterial etiology has been confirmed for common oral diseases such as caries and periodontal and endodontic infections. Bacteria causing these diseases are organized in biofilm structures, which are complex microbial communities composed of a great variety of bacteria with different ecological requirements and pathogenic potential. The biofilm community not only gives bacteria effective protection against the host's defense system but also makes them more resistant to a variety of disinfecting agents used as oral hygiene products or in the treatment of infections. Successful treatment of these diseases depends on biofilm removal as well as effective killing of biofilm bacteria. So, the fundamental to maintain oral health and prevent dental caries, gingivitis, and periodontitis is to control the oral biofilms. From these aspects, the formation of biofilms carries particular clinical significance because not only host defense mechanisms but also therapeutic efforts including chemical and mechanical antimicrobial treatment measures have the most difficult task of dealing with organisms that are gathered in a biofilm. The aim of this article was to review the mechanisms of biofilms' formation, their roles in pulpal and periapical pathosis, the different types of biofilms, the factors influencing biofilm formation, the mechanisms of their antimicrobial resistance, techniques to identify biofilms.
  4,138 486 15
REVIEW ARTICLE
Effectiveness of oral health education programs: A systematic review
Priya Devadas Nakre, AG Harikiran
July-December 2013, 3(2):103-115
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.127810  PMID:24778989
In recent years, attention has been drawn toward assessing the effectiveness of oral health education programs. This is in line with demand for evidence based research and will help to inform policy makers on how to allocate resources. (1) Collect and collate all information on oral health education programs. (2) Assess the programs based on various coding criteria. (3) Assess effectiveness of oral health education programs on oral health status and knowledge, attitude and practice. A search of all published articles in Medline was done using the keywords "oral health education, dental health education, oral health promotion". The resulting titles and abstracts provided the basis for initial decisions and selection of articles. Out of the primary list of articles, a total number of 40 articles were selected as they fulfilled the following inclusion criteria: (1). Articles on oral health programs with an oral health education component (2). Articles published after the year 1990 (3). Articles published in English. The full text of the articles was then obtained from either the internet or libraries of dental research colleges and hospitals in and around Bangalore. A set of important variables were identified and grouped under five headings to make them amenable for coding. The coding variables were then described under various subheadings to allow us to compare the chosen articles. Oral health education is effective in improving the knowledge attitude and practice of oral health and in reducing plaque, bleeding on probing of the gingiva and caries increment. This study identifies a few important variables which contribute to the effectiveness of the programs. There is an indication in this review that the most successful oral health programs are labor intensive, involve significant others and has received funding and additional support. A balance between inputs and outputs and health care resources available will determine if the program can be recommended for general use.
  3,783 474 1
REVIEW ARTICLES
Risk of tumor cell seeding through biopsy and aspiration cytology
K Shyamala, HC Girish, Sanjay Murgod
January-April 2014, 4(1):5-11
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.129446  PMID:24818087
Cancer cells, besides reproducing uncontrollably, lose cohesiveness and orderliness of normal tissue, invade and get detached from the primary tumor to travel and set up colonies elsewhere. Dislodging neoplastically altered cells from a tumor during biopsy or surgical intervention or during simple procedure like needle aspiration is a possibility because they lack cohesiveness, and they attain the capacity to migrate and colonize. Considering the fact that, every tumor cell, is bathed in interstitial fluid, which drains into the lymphatic system and has an individualized arterial blood supply and venous drainage like any other normal cell in our body, inserting a needle or a knife into a tumor, there is a jeopardy of dislodging a loose tumor cell into either the circulation or into the tissue fluid. Tumor cells are easier to dislodge due to lower cell-to-cell adhesion. This theory with the possibility of seeding of tumor cells is supported by several case studies that have shown that after diagnostic biopsy of a tumor, many patients developed cancer at multiple sites and showed the presence of circulating cancer cells in the blood stream on examination. In this review, we evaluate the risk of exposure to seeding of tumor cells by biopsy and aspiration cytology and provide some suggested practices to prevent tumor cell seeding.
  3,899 233 9
Oral health related quality of life
Darshana Bennadi, C. V. K. Reddy
January-June 2013, 3(1):1-6
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.115700  PMID:24478972
Diseases and disorders that damage the mouth and face can disturb well-being and his self-esteem. Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQOL) is a relatively new but rapidly growing notion. The concept of OHRQOL can become a tool to understand and shape not only the state of clinical practice, dental research and dental education but also that of community at large. There are different approaches to measure OHRQOL; the most popular one is multiple item questionnaires. OHRQOL should be the basis for any oral health programme development. Moreover, research at the conceptual level is needed in countries where OHRQOL has not been previously assessed, including India.
  3,468 509 3
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Clinical evaluation of a new art material: Nanoparticulated resin-modified glass ionomer cement
S Konde, S Raj, D Jaiswal
July-December 2012, 2(2):42-47
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.109361  PMID:24478966
Context: The success of atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) technique depends on the restorative material; hence, clinical studies with various materials are necessary. Aim: The aim of the present study was to clinically evaluate and compare the nanoionomer and high-viscosity glass ionomer using United States Public Health Services (USPHS) Modified Cvar/Ryge Criteria with ART approach. Materials and Methods: Two primary molars in 50 healthy children aged between 5 and 8 years were selected for the study. The teeth were treated with ART and divided into two groups. The group 1 teeth were restored with nanoionomer (Ketac Nano 100 3M ESPE) and group 2 with high-viscosity glass ionomer cement (HVGIC), (Fuji IX GC). Each restoration was evaluated using the USPHS Modified Cvar/Ryge Criteria at baseline and 6 months' and 12 months' time interval. Statistical analysis used: Chi-squared (χ2 ) test. Results: Nanoionomer was significantly better than HVGIC with respect to color match at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months (P<0.001). Nanoionomers were also significantly better than HVGIC in case of cavosurface marginal discoloration and marginal adaptation (P<0.001) at 6 months and 12 months. There was no significant difference between the two materials with respect to secondary caries at 6 months (P>0.05), but at 12 months, nanoionomer was statistically better than HVGIC (P<0.05). There was no statistical significant difference with respect to anatomical form and postoperative sensitivity (P>0.05). Conclusion: The results indicate that nanoionomer can be a successful alternative restorative material for use with ART technique.
  3,277 385 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
A substantive review on tobacco use among school-going adolescents in India
Anitha R Sagarkar, Roshan M Sagarkar, Kashinath C Arabbi, Shivakumar M Shivamallappa
January-June 2013, 3(1):7-11
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.115704  PMID:24478973
Tobacco use among the adolescents in india is believed to be on an increase. Therefore, a systematic review was carried out to summarize these studies. Several electronic databases were searched, supplemented by screening reference lists, smoking-related websites, and contacting experts. Selection, extraction, and quality assessments were carried out by one or two independent reviewers. The focus was on studies conducted on the school-going children in india and discussed in a global perspective. A narrative review was carried out. Many of the studies lacked sufficient power to estimate precise risks associated with the study subjects, as it mainly involved questionnaire studies. Studies were often designed to investigate tobacco use, but many had major methodological limitations including poor control and imprecise measurements of exposure. Studies in india showed a high risk of major health-related illness and several forms of cancers such as oro-pharyngeal cancers associated with the chewing form of tobacco. Studies from other regions and of other cancer types were not consistent. Tobacco use is increasing among the adolescents and has become an persistent issue that is usually carried over to their adulthood. In india, there is a stringent need for awareness creating oral health education programs in the school and college premises.
  3,068 327 1
Tobacco: Its historical, cultural, oral, and periodontal health association
Shanu Mishra, MB Mishra
January-June 2013, 3(1):12-18
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.115708  PMID:24478974
This article provides information on the origin of tobacco and its subsequent spread throughout the world. In the era of the migration of communities, tobacco use gradually gained access and subsequently migrated along with the migrants, establishing in different locations. Probably at that time people were unaware of the health hazards and were using tobacco in treating certain ailments. Much has been known and written about tobacco in the context of oral and general health hazards but little has been explored and is known to many about where from and how this plant, which is now used in various forms, and speading widely. In what form, where, and how it had been served in religious rituals and considered for treatment or remedy of certain ailments in those days could not certainly be known. In the 21 st century, people are considering hazardous tobacco as beneficial for their teeth, good for concentration of mind, and something which keeps them engaged. Even many professionals, though knowing the deleterious effects, are still using tobacco and gutkha in one or the other form. This article has been designed to revive the awareness for health hazards of tobacco and similar products. A pilot project questionnaire survey comprising this subject involving the educated mass has already been started and will be produced after analysis of data in part II of this paper.
  3,076 263 1
REVIEW ARTICLE
Dengue virus: A global human threat: Review of literature
Shamimul Hasan, Sami Faisal Jamdar, Munther Alalowi, Sadun Mohammad Al Ageel Al Beaiji
January-February 2016, 6(1):1-6
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.175416  PMID:27011925
Dengue is an acute viral illness caused by RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae and spread by Aedes mosquitoes. Presenting features may range from asymptomatic fever to dreaded complications such as hemorrhagic fever and shock. A cute-onset high fever, muscle and joint pain, myalgia, cutaneous rash, hemorrhagic episodes, and circulatory shock are the commonly seen symptoms. Oral manifestations are rare in dengue infection; however, some cases may have oral features as the only presenting manifestation. Early and accurate diagnosis is critical to reduce mortality. Although dengue virus infections are usually self-limiting, dengue infection has come up as a public health challenge in the tropical and subtropical nations. This article provide a detailed overview on dengue virus infections, varied clinical manifestations, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and prevention and treatment.
  3,314 13 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Evaluation and co-relation of the Oratest, colorimetric Snyder's test and salivary Streptococcus mutans count in children of age group of 6-8 years
Sanket S Kunte, Shweta Chaudhary, Asha Singh, Mayur Chaudhary
July-December 2013, 3(2):59-66
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.122433  PMID:24778981
Aim: Evaluation and co-relation of the caries susceptibility using Oratest, colorimetric Snyder's test and salivary Streptococcus mutans count amongst children in the age group of 6-8 years. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 healthy children were grouped into control and test groups according to their dmft/DMFT scores. Snyder's test, salivary S. mutans count and Oratest were performed for each individual. Results: The relationship of three caries activity tests with each other and with existing caries status was found out. Conclusion and Clinical Implications : The present study has shown that Oratest has a definite clinical relationship with caries status and microbiological relationship with S. mutans count of the individual.
  2,863 332 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Dental home: Patient centered dentistry
KL Girish Babu, GM Doddamani
January-June 2012, 2(1):8-12
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.103448  PMID:24478960
Early childhood dental caries occurs in all racial and socioeconomic groups; however, it tends to be more prevalent in children in families belonging to the low-income group, where it is seen in epidemic proportions. Dental caries results from an overgrowth of specific organisms that are a part of normally occurring human flora. Human dental flora is site specific, and an infant is not colonized until the eruption of the primary dentition at approximately 6 to 30 months of age. The most likely source of inoculation of an infant's dental flora is the mother, or another intimate care provider, shared utensils, etc. Decreasing the level of cariogenic organisms in the mother's dental flora at the time of colonization can significantly impact the child's redisposition to caries. To prevent caries in children, high-risk individuals must be identified at an early age (preferably high-risk mothers during prenatal care), and aggressive strategies should be adopted, including anticipatory guidance, behavior modifications (oral hygiene and feeding practices), and establishment of a dental home by 1 year of age for children deemed at risk.
  2,182 882 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Oral health status and treatment needs among 12- and 15-year-old government and private school children in Shimla city, Himachal Pradesh, India
Fotedar Shailee, M Sogi Girish, R Sharma Kapil, Pruthi Nidhi
January-June 2013, 3(1):44-50
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.115715  PMID:24478980
Objectives: To assess the dental caries, periodontal health, and malocclusion of school children aged 12 and 15 years in Shimla city and to compare them in government and private schools. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 12- and 15-year-old children in government and private schools was conducted in Shimla city, Himachal Pradesh, India. A sample of 1011 school children (both males and females) was selected by a two-stage cluster sampling method. Clinical recordings of dental caries and malocclusion were done according to World Health Organization diagnostic criteria 1997. Periodontal health was assessed by Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs index. The data collected was analyzed by SPSS package 13. The statistical tests used were t-test and Chi-square tests. Results: The prevalence of dental caries was 32.6% and 42.2% at 12 and 15 years, respectively. At the12 years of age, the mean decayed, missing, filled teeth was 0.62 ± 1.42 and it was 1.06 ± 2.93 at 15 years of age. Females had higher level of caries than males at both the ages. At both ages, mean of decayed teeth was statistically higher in government schools as compared with private schools. Children in government schools had significantly less number of mean filled teeth at both ages as compared with private schools. The healthy component of gingiva was present in higher percentage of children in private schools as compared with government schools at both the age groups. The prevalence of malocclusion among the 12- year-old (58.1%) was more as compared with that among the 15-year-old (53.5%). Conclusion: The caries experience of 12- and 15-year-old children was low but the prevalence of gingivitis and malocclusion was quite high. Effective oral health promotion strategies need to be implemented to improve the oral health of school children further in Shimla city.
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A study of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs according to dental aesthetic index among school children of a hilly state of India
Deepak Chauhan, Vinod Sachdev, Tripti Chauhan, Kamal K Gupta
January-June 2013, 3(1):32-37
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.115706  PMID:24478978
Background: The documentation of magnitude of malocclusion in terms of prevalence and severity has not been done till date in Himachal Pradesh, India. Aims: To assess the prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs (OTNs) among 9-and 12-year-old school children by using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) in the state. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1188 children from randomly selected schools. The survey was done according to the Oral Health Assessment Form (modified). DAI was used to assess the severity of malocclusion, along with collection of demographic data. Results: The overall prevalence of malocclusion was 12.5% and required orthodontic treatment, whereas 87.5% did not require treatment. A severe malocclusion for which treatment was highly desirable was recorded in 3.1%; 8% had a definite malocclusion for which treatment was elective. Only about 1.3% had a handicapping malocclusion that needed mandatory treatment. Almost equal proportions of males and females were affected with malocclusion with the means 20 ± 4.6 and 19.9 ± 4.9, respectively ( P < 0.641). The prevalence and severity of malocclusion was more in 12-year age group than in 9-year age group ( P = 0.002**). There was an increase in the proportion of malocclusion among older children: In 12-year age group, 15.7% with mean 20.5 ± 5.1 and in 9-year-old children, 8.9% with the mean 19.3 ± 4.1 were in the need of orthodontic treatment. Conclusion: Severity and treatment needs, both are important factors in public health planning.
  2,584 327 -
Prevalence of torus palatinus and torus mandibularis among Malay population
VK Hiremath, A Husein, N Mishra
July-December 2011, 1(2):60-64
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.97704  PMID:24478956
The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence, size, shape, and location of torus palatinus (TP) and torus mandibularis (TM), and to assess their sex-related and age-related differences in the Malay population. Sixty-five subjects were assessed for the presence of both tori at the School of Dental Sciences University Sains Malaysia. The prevalence of TP was 38-63% and that of TM was 1-10%. TP was frequently more common in females than males (90.9% versus 9.1%; P < 0.05) and was frequently found in medium sizes, spindle shaped, and was often located at the combined premolar to molar areas. The prevalence of TM was not significantly different in males and females (33.3% versus 66.7%; P = 0.523), occurred most commonly in bilateral multiple form, and was often located at the canine to premolar area.
  2,453 318 5
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