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   2014| January-April  | Volume 4 | Issue 1  
    Online since May 6, 2014

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Risk of tumor cell seeding through biopsy and aspiration cytology
K Shyamala, HC Girish, Sanjay Murgod
January-April 2014, 4(1):5-11
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.129446  PMID:24818087
Cancer cells, besides reproducing uncontrollably, lose cohesiveness and orderliness of normal tissue, invade and get detached from the primary tumor to travel and set up colonies elsewhere. Dislodging neoplastically altered cells from a tumor during biopsy or surgical intervention or during simple procedure like needle aspiration is a possibility because they lack cohesiveness, and they attain the capacity to migrate and colonize. Considering the fact that, every tumor cell, is bathed in interstitial fluid, which drains into the lymphatic system and has an individualized arterial blood supply and venous drainage like any other normal cell in our body, inserting a needle or a knife into a tumor, there is a jeopardy of dislodging a loose tumor cell into either the circulation or into the tissue fluid. Tumor cells are easier to dislodge due to lower cell-to-cell adhesion. This theory with the possibility of seeding of tumor cells is supported by several case studies that have shown that after diagnostic biopsy of a tumor, many patients developed cancer at multiple sites and showed the presence of circulating cancer cells in the blood stream on examination. In this review, we evaluate the risk of exposure to seeding of tumor cells by biopsy and aspiration cytology and provide some suggested practices to prevent tumor cell seeding.
  24 5,581 380
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Evaluation of nickel ion release from various orthodontic arch wires: An in vitro study
RS Senkutvan, Sanjay Jacob, Anila Charles, Vaishali Vadgaonkar, Suruchi Jatol-Tekade, Parag Gangurde
January-April 2014, 4(1):12-16
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.130921  PMID:24818088
Aim: The high incidence of nickel (Ni) allergy and the increasing use of Ni-containing dental biomaterials have been of growing concern. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze and evaluate the rate of Ni ion release from different types arch wires used in orthodontics. Materials and Methods: Four groups of arch wires (nickel titanium [NiTi], SS, Cu NiTi and ion implanted NiTi) with twelve samples were stored in artificial saliva with a pH 5.6-7.0 thermostated at (36.5°C) and tested at different intervals i.e., 7th day, 14th day, and 21st day. The amount of Ni and Ti ions released from the sample were evaluated using an atomic adsorption spectrophotometer. The solution was replaced with a fresh bottle to avoid sediments. Results: Statistical analysis was performed by nonparametric tests (Student's paired t-test, one-way analysis of variance and multiple comparison test by Tukey "Honestly significant difference"). The statistical package SPSS PC plus (version 4.0.1) was used for data processing and statistical analysis. Results showed significantly statistical influence on the release amount of Ni and Ti ions. Large variation in concentration of Ni released from brackets and bands combined. However, the amount of Ni ions released in all test solutions diminished with time and was below the critical value necessary to induce allergy and below daily dietary intake level. Conclusions: The daily release of NiTi, SS, Cu NiTi and ion implanted NiTi by an orthodontic appliance in acid pH, particularly favorable to corrosion, was well below that ingested with a normal daily diet. It is therefore concluded that the quantities of metal ions released in our experimental conditions should not be cause for concern in utilizing the appliance.
  7 2,896 297
CASE REPORTS
Orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst of the mandible: A rare case report with a systematic review
Bhumi Sarvaiya, Hitesh Vadera, Vimal Sharma, Kaustubh Bhad, Zinal Patel, Mimansa Thakkar
January-April 2014, 4(1):71-76
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.131265  PMID:24818100
Orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) is an odontogenic cyst was initially termed as the uncommon orthokeratinized type of odontogenic keratocyst by the World Health Organization. It usually occurs in mandible. Various studies have shown that OOC has typical characteristic clinicopathologic features when compared to other developmental odontogenic lesions such as dentigerous cyst and the keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT). Rare recurrence was noted after surgical removal of the lesion. The purpose of this article is to present a case of OOC arising in the posterior mandible and emphasize on differentiating it from the KCOT and dentigerous cyst.
  5 2,127 306
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Analysis of human papilloma virus in oral squamous cell carcinoma using p16: An immunohistochemical study
S Patil, RS Rao, N Amrutha, DS Sanketh
January-April 2014, 4(1):61-66
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.131269  PMID:24818098
Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression of human papilloma virus (HPV) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and to correlate the association of HPV in histological grades of OSCC using p16 (p16INK4a) immunohistochemistry (IHC). Subjects and Methods: This study consists of 30 histological diagnosed cases of OSCC (10-well-differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma [WDOSCC], 10-moderately differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma [MDOSCC] and 10-poorly differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma [PDOSCC]). The sections were subjected to IHC procedure using p16. Two parameters in immunohistochemical p16 expression were evaluated by 3 observers based on the criteria by Galgano M. Tetal (2010) (a) percentage of p16 positive cases (b) pattern of p16 staining in various grades of OSCC. Statistical Analysis Used: Kappa test. Results: Totally, 30 samples of 0SCC, p16 positivity was noted in 26/30 (86.66%). Of 26 positive cases, p16 staining was positive in 7/10 (70%) of WDOSCC, 9/10 (90%) in MDOSCC and, 10/10 (100%) PDOSCC. Incidentally, we also found single dispersed cell staining in WDOSCC, patchy staining in MDOSCC and more diffuse staining pattern predominant in PDOSCC. Conclusions: Our study revealed an association between HPV and OSCC. Diffuse staining pattern was noted in PDOSCC, which in turn depicts the increase viral overload, which might have an influence on its aggressive behavior.
  5 1,947 256
REVIEW ARTICLES
Eating everything except food (PICA): A rare case report and review
Shweta Advani, Gulsheen Kochhar, Sanjay Chachra, Preeti Dhawan
January-April 2014, 4(1):1-4
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.127851  PMID:24818086
Pica is an act or habit of eating non‑food items such as stone, bricks, chalk, soap, paper, soil etc., It occurs in children who actually start seeing the world through the oral cavity. There are many theories behind it such as iron and zinc deficiency etc., We as dentists should be able to diagnose and treat such conditions, as they may cause ill‑effects to the developing dentition. This case report attempt to highlights the importance of proper diagnosis and treatment of pica.
  5 2,595 332
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Assessment of caries prevalence among children below 5 years old
Poornima Prabhu, K. T. S. S. Rajajee, KA Sudheer, G Jesudass
January-April 2014, 4(1):40-43
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.129449  PMID:24818093
Context: In the current scenario of developing countries, dental caries has been a long-standing challenge in the oral health issue and still on the rise. Aim: The aim of the following study is to estimate the caries prevalence in the primary dentition among children below 5 years of age. Meterials and Methods: Study population included both boys and girls below 5 years old attending KGF Dental College and Hospital, Karnataka. A simple random sampling method was used. A total of 672 children were examined under headlamp illumination using mouth mirror and probe according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. A questionnaire was used to elicit information from the attendants regarding general health, intra oral examination and caries experience was recorded using WHO 1997 proforma. The data were computerized and analyzed applying the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences program. Results: Prevalence of dental caries was 44.34%. Caries prevalence was higher in the boys than the girls and it was statistically significant (P < 0.05). It was also found that primary second molars were the highest carious tooth. Conclusion: The prevalence of dental caries was high among children below 5 years old. The present study was undertaken to obtain baseline data for planning preventive programs. Untreated caries indicates subsequent steps toward preventive and restorative care should be initiated. In order to reduce the caries prevalence, there is a need for continuous monitoring and health education to the children and parents, guardians.
  3 1,624 207
Prevalence of dental caries among school children of Bharatpur city, India
Navin Anand Ingle, Harsh Vardhan Dubey, Navpreet Kaur, Rahul Gupta
January-April 2014, 4(1):52-55
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.131267  PMID:24818096
Background: Healthy teeth and oral tissues and the need for oral health care are important for any section of society. Dental caries is an infectious microbial disease of multifactorial origin in which diet, host, and microbial flora interacts over a period of time in such a way so as to encourage demineralization of the tooth enamel with resultant caries formation. Dental caries, the product of man's progress towards civilization, has a very high morbidity potential and thus, is coming into focus of the mankind. Aims and Objectives: To assess the prevalence of dental caries among 12-15 year old government and private school children of Bharatpur city. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study carried out on total 1400 school children, of which 700 school children were from government schools and 700 were from private schools. Simple random sampling methodology was used to select the sample. The subjects were examined for dental caries according to WHO 1997 assessment form. Significant Caries Index was also used to assess the prevalence of dental caries. Results: The prevalence of dental caries was found higher among government school children, that is, 53%, when compared to private school children, that is, 47% and this difference was found to be statistically significant. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth were found to be higher in government school children (7.61 ± 2.86) as compared to private school children (4.76 ± 2.42). Conclusion: Dental caries was found to be the major public health problems among both the government and private school children of Bharatpur city, which need immediate attention. Regular dental checkups and practice of routine oral hygiene procedures will enable them to lead a healthier life.
  2 2,515 345
In vitro evaluation of antibacterial efficacy of calcium hydroxide in different vehicles
MR Ganesh, Vishwajit Rampratap Chaurasia, Vinay Kumar S Masamatti, Abdul Mujeeb, Ashu Jhamb, Jai Hans Agarwal
January-April 2014, 4(1):56-60
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.131268  PMID:24818097
Aim: This study was aimed to evaluate the antibacterial effect of calcium hydroxide (CH) in different vehicles in an in vitro model. Materials and Methods: Calcium hydroxide paste prepared with two conventionally used vehicles namely, camphorated monochlophenol, distilled water and propylene glycol. The antibacterial activity of these paste were tested against five micro-organisms that can commonly occur in the infected root canals. Results: The results of this study indicate that a paste of CH made with propylene glycol exerts significant antibacterial action. Hence, it can be recommended for use as an intracanal medicament in preference to a paste prepared with a tissue toxic phenolic compound like camphorated monochlorophenol.
  2 1,810 214
The importance of dental aesthetics among dental students assessment of knowledge
Sunayana Manipal, CS Anand Mohan, D Lokesh Kumar, Priyanka K Cholan, Adil Ahmed, Preethi Adusumilli
January-April 2014, 4(1):48-51
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.131266  PMID:24818095
Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the dental esthetics awareness among dental students in a private university in Chennai as none is available in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: The dental esthetics awareness questionnaire consisting of a battery of 19 questions under five aspects that is, physical, functional, social, knowledge, and psychological aspects was administered to a sample of 100 dental college students aged between 18 and 27 years in a private college in Chennai, India. Gender variations on the responses of their effects and the impact on dental esthetics awareness had been analyzed using a Chi-square test. Results: With respect to physical aspects, pigmentation shows more significance as students want to get treated for their pigmentation of lips and gums. With respect to functional aspects, eating shows more significance as students have difficulty while eating. In social aspects, habits show more significance as it affects their esthetics. With respect to psychological aspects, mental depression shows more significance as students feel more deprived due to their unesthetic appearance. Conclusion: This study shows a high level of self-consciousness and the findings of the studies prove that even the slightest of variations have a greater impact on the above-mentioned dimensions in particular to psychological, functional, and physical aspects.
  1 1,643 208
CASE REPORTS
Unilateral condylar hyperplasia: A case report and review of literature
Saravana C Bharathi, S Senthilnathan, Lokesh D Kumar, Anand C. S. Mohan, M Taranath
January-April 2014, 4(1):67-70
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.127853  PMID:24818099
Condylar hyperplasia is (CH) an uncommon malformation of the mandible involving change in size and morphology of the condylar neck and head. CH is an anomaly that usually occurs unilaterally and equally affects in both men and women. Hyperplasia of the condyle `differentiated into hemimandibular hyperplasia, hemimandibular elongation and CH. Here, we are presenting a case of 17-year-old male patient with unilateral CH and its review of the literature.
  - 3,292 285
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Evaluation of awareness regarding orthodontic procedures among a group of preadolescents in a cross-sectional study
Madhu Pandey, Jaideep Singh, Garima Mangal, Pramod Yadav
January-April 2014, 4(1):44-47
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.131264  PMID:24818094
Objective: This study was carried out to know the level of awareness regarding orthodontic procedures among preadolescents as there is very high prevalence of malocclusion. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among a sample of 1010 subjects with a mean age of (in years) was 13.02 ± 2.146. A self-administered structured questionnaire proforma was used. Pilot study was done to validate the questionnaire, which was constituted of nine items. The Student's t-test and ANOVA test along with stepwise multiple linear regression were applied for the statistical evaluation of means. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: The overall awareness of orthodontist among the school going children was 45.1%. The knowledge of orthodontic procedures was significantly higher among girls (4.46 ± 1.671) when compared to boys (4.00 ± 1.489). When the results were compared according to the area of location most of the students in the urban areas gave a positive response regarding awareness when compared to children in the rural community. Conclusion: This group of preadolescents showed moderate level of awareness regarding orthodontic procedures as they mentioned that it helps in esthetics, better oral hygiene, mastication, and healthy lifestyle.
  - 1,550 196
A survey of dental students on global oral health issues in Nigeria
Omoigberai Bashiru Braimoh, Emeka Danielson Odai
January-April 2014, 4(1):17-21
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.127210  PMID:24818089
Objectives: This study seeks to investigate to what extent are students conversant with global oral health initiatives and policies, students' willingness to volunteer service at international setting or developing countries and the need for global oral health course in Nigeria. Methods: Final year dental students in two Nigerian Universities were surveyed for this study. The students voluntarily completed the global oral health information questionnaire in a classroom before a scheduled lecture. The collected data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistic 20. Results: All the final year students participated in the survey. All the students agreed that they need to be taught course on global oral health and would consider volunteering their dental skills and expertise in an international setting or developing country. Only 4.5% of the students knew the meaning of the basic package of oral care (BPOC) and none of the surveyed students could correctly name the three components of BPOC. Whereas only 18.2% could identify World Dental Federation and World Health Organization as the bodies that developed global oral health goals for the year 2000, none of the students could correctly list the three components of global oral health goals for the year 2000. Conclusion: This study concludes that a gap exists in the knowledge of students on global oral health matters and recommends that the curricula of schools be constantly reviewed in line with current trends in policies and practices.
  - 1,856 258
Effect of two different finishing systems on surface roughness of feldspathic and fluorapatite porcelains in ceramo-metal restorations: Comparative in vitro study
Cherry Anmol, Sumeet Soni
January-April 2014, 4(1):22-28
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.127211  PMID:24818090
Objective: The objective of present study was to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate and compare the effect of two ceramic finishing systems and diamond polishing paste on surface texture of two ceramic materials. Methodology: The 40 test specimens were randomly divided into two main groups (Group I and Group II). Which were subsequently veneered with feldspathic porcelain and fluorapatite leucite porcelain systems respectively. The samples in Test group I and Test group II were subjected to different abrasion and finishing systems (Soft Lex and White silicon and grey rubber respectively). The surface roughness of all the four groups was assessed qualitatively using the scanning Electron Microscope and profilometer. Results: The surface roughness of Feldspathic and fluorapetite porcelain increased after abrasion and finishing as compared to auto-glazed porcelin. The surface roughness was more in grey rubber disc group (Gp Ib) as compared to the soft lex disc groups. After polishing with the diamond paste, there was reduction in the surface roughness of both the disc groups. The Mean Ra values of the Feldspathic porcelain at three intervals were 0.52 ± 0.06, 0.54 ± 0.06, 0.32 ± 0.06 and 0.50 ± 0.04, 1.25 ± 0.10, 0.45 ± 0.6 respectively for grey rubber disc and soft lex groups. The Mean Ra values of Fluorapetite porcelain at three intervals were 0.40 ± 0.06, 0.52 ± 0.06, 0.30 ± 0.03 and 0.41 ± 0.04, 1.17 ± 0.09, 0.39 ± 0.07 respectively for grey rubber disc and soft lex groups. Discussion and Conclusion: The surface roughness was less in the polished samples as compared to the auto-glazed porcelain. The findings were more reinforcing in the soft lex group as compared to the white/grey rubber disc group. Between the two porcelain systems, the Fluorapatite leucite porcelain specimens exhibited better surface smoothness than feldspathic porcelain.
  - 1,937 214
Knowledge and attitude about computer and internet usage among dental students in Western Rajasthan, India
Pramod K Jali, Shamsher Singh, Prashant Babaji, Vishwajit Rampratap Chaurasia, P Somasundaram, Himani Lau
January-April 2014, 4(1):29-34
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.127212  PMID:24818091
Background: Internet is a useful tool to update the knowledge. The aim of the present study was to assess the current level of knowledge on the computer and internet among under graduate dental students. Materials and Methods: The study consists of self-administered close ended questionnaire survey. Questionnaires were distributed to undergraduate dental students. The study was conducted during July to September 2012. Results: In the selected samples, response rate was 100%. Most (94.4%) of the students had computer knowledge and 77.4% had their own computer and access at home. Nearly 40.8% of students use computer for general purpose, 28.5% for entertainment and 22.8% used for research purpose. Most of the students had internet knowledge (92.9%) and they used it independently (79.1%). Nearly 42.1% used internet occasionally whereas, 34.4% used regularly, 21.7% rarely and 1.8% don't use respectively. Internet was preferred for getting information (48.8%) due to easy accessibility and recent updates. For dental purpose students used internet 2-3 times/week (45.3%). Most (95.3%) of the students responded to have computer based learning program in the curriculum. Conclusion: Computer knowledge was observed to be good among dental students.
  - 2,182 230
Self-reported and clinically diagnosed dental needs among institutionalized adults in Vijayawada: A cross-sectional study
M Guntipalli Naidu, B Vishnuvardhan Reddy, Chaitanya Ram Kandregula, Narayana Reddy Satti, Swapna Allareddy, P Ravisekhar Babu
January-April 2014, 4(1):35-39
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.127213  PMID:24818092
Background: Frail and functionally dependent elderly people, living in institutions, have difficulties in accessing dental care. Hence, the present study aims to determine the relationship between subjective need and the equivalent clinical findings in an attempt to understand the factors that contribute to individual's perception of the need for dental care among institutionalized adults in Vijayawada. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study is conducted in all old age homes in Vijayawada. A total of 182 subjects were interviewed with a questionnaire consisting of demographic details, dental behavior (last visit, reason for the last visit), and self-rating of oral health and impact of oral problems, followed by the clinical examination for oral mucosal condition, dentition status and treatment needs, prosthetic status and treatment needs, and periodontal status by using World Health Organization proforma. Results: Results showed that normative needs of subjects are significantly more than the self-perceived needs. Response of subjects regarding their present condition of mouth and teeth is 65.4% of subjects reported good and 0.5% reported poor, with respective to perceived oral symptoms 61.9% of subjects' complaints of hypersensitivity and 23.1% of subjects were having toothache and 80.5% subjects are having difficulty in eating. The overall prevalence of complete Edentulous and require complete denture was 12.1%, and 60.4% required partial denture. Conclusion: About half of the participants confirmed need for problem-oriented dental care. The main reason for the problems faced by the institutionalized people is due to lack of teeth which could be prevented by appropriate care.
  - 1,400 171
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