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   2014| September-December  | Volume 4 | Issue 3  
    Online since October 1, 2014

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Effectiveness of supervised toothbrushing and oral health education in improving oral hygiene status and practices of urban and rural school children: A comparative study
Satyawan G Damle, Anil Patil, Saru Jain, Dhanashree Damle, Nilika Chopal
September-December 2014, 4(3):175-181
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.142021  PMID:25374836
Objective: To evaluate and compare the oral health status and the impact of supervised toothbrushing and oral health education among school children of urban and rural areas of Maharashtra, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 school children in the age group 12-15 years were selected by stratified random sampling technique from two schools and were further divided into two groups: Group A (urban school) and Group B (rural school). Both the groups were again subdivided into control group and study group. Supervised toothbrushing was recommended for both the groups. The toothbrushing teaching program included session on oral health education, individual toothbrushing instructions, and supervised toothbrushing. Dental caries increment, plaque scores, and gingival status were assessed as per the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria (1997), Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman modification of the Quigley Hein Plaque Index, and Loe-Silness Gingival Index (1963), respectively. Cronbach's alpha, Chi-square test, paired t-test, and unpaired t-test were utilized for data analysis. Results: The mean plaque and gingival score reduction was significantly higher in the study groups as compared to the control groups. An increase in the mean of Decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) and Decayed, missing, filled teeth and surfaces (DMFS) scores throughout the study period was seen in children who participated in study. Conclusion: Oral health education was effective in establishing good oral health habits among school children and also in enhancing the knowledge of their parents about good oral health.
  2,841 326 3
Oral health related knowledge, attitude, and practice among the pre-university students of Mysore city
Veera Reddy, Darshana Bennadi, Satish Gaduputi, Nandita Kshetrimayum, Sibyl Siluvai, Chava Venkata Konda Reddy
September-December 2014, 4(3):154-158
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.142012  PMID:25374832
Objectives: To determine the oral health related behavior, knowledge, attitudes, and practices of pre-university students of Mysore city. Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 1000 pre-university students of Mysore city. Results: Statistical tests such as percentage distribution and Chi-square were used. P values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Most of the students (88%, n = 880) knew that dental health reflects on the general health. Eighty-nine percent (n = 890) of students were aware that sweets and sticky food cause dental decay. Majority of the students (90%, n = 900) agreed that they visited dentist only when they had pain and cleaned their teeth once daily using toothbrush and tooth paste in vertical and horizontal motion. Conclusion: The study showed that the students had good knowledge about the basic oral health measures necessary to maintain proper oral health, but their attitude and practices toward oral health was relatively poor.
  2,847 288 2
Effect of end-stage renal disease on oral health in patients undergoing renal dialysis: A cross-sectional study
Nalam Radhika Gautam, Nalam Sai Gautam, Thota Hanumantha Rao, Ravichandra Koganti, Rohit Agarwal, Madhavi Alamanda
September-December 2014, 4(3):164-169
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.142006  PMID:25374834
Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the effect of chronic renal failure on oral health in renal dialysis patients. To assess and improvise awareness of staff regarding oral health care of the patients in hemodialysis unit. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey and oral health examination study were conducted on 206 end-stage chronic renal failure patients (stage V) who were undergoing renal dialysis in Guntur city. The study included the questionnaire form and modified WHO proforma to record their oral health status. Oral examination was done in American Dental Association (ADA) type III method by using mouth mirror and community periodontal index (CPI) probe. Questionnaire survey was conducted among the nursing staff in the hemodialysis unit. Results: Mean age of the study subjects was 46.79 ± 12.78 years; 81.1% were males and 18.9% were females. Candidiasis (8.3%) was the most frequently seen oral mucosal condition in these subjects. Majority of the subjects (44.2%) showed periodontal diseases (CPI score 3: Pocket depth of 4-5 mm). Caries prevalence of 56.3% was seen in this study group. Higher incidence of hepatitis C was significantly associated with higher duration of dialysis. There was very little awareness among the nursing staff regarding dental care. Conclusion: There is greater deterioration of periodontal health among dialysis patients with chronic renal disease. Awareness regarding dental care is very less among patients undergoing renal dialysis. These patients should be monitored carefully to maintain their oral health. Awareness must be increased among dialysis patients and nursing staff about the need for primary prevention of dental diseases.
  2,581 292 5
Knowledge, attitude, and practice of hand hygiene among dentists practicing in Bangalore city - A cross-sectional survey
Sachin Naik, Sanjeev Khanagar, Amit Kumar, Sunil Vadavadagi, Hombesh Mayakonda Neelakantappa, Sujith Ramachandra
September-December 2014, 4(3):159-163
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.142013  PMID:25374833
Background: Hand hygiene in dental practice is one of the most important parts of the infection control process to reduce the risk of transmitting microorganisms from provider to patient. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Hand Hygiene (HH) guidelines were published more than 5 years ago. The extent to which dental practitioners are aware of it and the extent to which alcohol-based hand sanitizers are used by dental practitioners are unknown. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the present study was to assess the practice of HH among dentists in Bangalore city. The objectives of the study were to assess knowledge and attitudes among dentists with regard to HH in Bangalore city. Materials and Methods: A total of 204 dentists from the registry of dental care facility, Bangalore, were selected for this study. The data were collected by administering a specially designed proforma. Results: 51% of the dental practitioners use soap and water for HH frequently and 44.6% use alcohol-based hand sanitizers for HH frequently. Also, 53.4% were aware of the CDC HH guideline. One-third of the dental practitioners indicated that they have limited/moderate knowledge of the CDC HH guideline. Conclusion: Most dental practitioners use soap and water for HH frequently, and a smaller number of dental practitioners use alcohol-based hand sanitizers for HH frequently. The knowledge of the CDC HH guidelines needs to be improved.
  2,548 258 2
Evaluation of initial stability and crestal bone loss in immediate implant placement: An in vivo study
Durga Prasad Tadi, Soujanya Pinisetti, Mahalakshmi Gujjalapudi, Sampath Kakaraparthi, Balaram Kolasani, Harsha Babu Vadapalli
September-December 2014, 4(3):139-144
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.142002  PMID:25374829
Objectives: (1) To measure the crestal bone levels around implants immediately, and one month, three months, and six months after immediate implant placement, to evaluate the amount of bone level changes in six months. (2) To measure the initial stability in immediate implant placement. Materials and Methods: Ten patients were selected and a total of ten implants were placed in the immediate extraction sites. The change in the level of crestal bone was measured on standardized digital periapical radiographs taken at baseline, first month, third month, and sixth months for each patient, using the SOPRO imaging software. The initial stability of implants was measured with resonance frequency analysis (RFA) and an engine-driven torque. The measurements were statistically analyzed. The student's t-test was used, to identify the significance of the study parameters. Results: When mesial and distal bone losses were averaged, the radiographic evaluation with the SOPRO imaging software showed an average of 0.80 mm, with a standard deviation of ± 0.18 mm bone loss at the first month, followed by 1.03 mm with a standard deviation of ± 0.19 mm at the third month, and 1.23 mm with standard deviation of ± 0.6 mm at the sixth month. The initial stability with the RFA instrument showed a mean of 55 implant stability quotient (ISQ) values and the torque showed a value of 36.50 Nm. Conclusions: The implant has to be placed 2 mm below the crestal bone level to compensate the crestal bone loss. The initial stability is achieved by apical preparation of the socket wall and use of straight screw implants. When the defect is more than 2 mm, autogenous grafts with membranes are the best choice.
  2,543 262 1
Exfoliative cytology of buccal squames: A quantitative cytomorphometric analysis of patients with diabetes
Bharat Sankhla, Abhishek Sharma, Raju Singam Shetty, Sheetal Chowdary Bolla, Naga Sribala Gantha, Prasun Reddy
September-December 2014, 4(3):182-187
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.142024  PMID:25374837
Background: Diabetes is a third leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. Diabetes is one of the most common endocrine metabolic disorders and its prevalence has been increasing worldwide. Oral exfoliative cytology may be a more appropriate adjunctive diagnostic tool in conditions like diabetes mellitus, where the invasive techniques lose viability. Aims: The purpose of this study is to analyze the cytomorphometric changes in the exfoliated cells of the oral mucosa, as an adjunct to the diagnosis of diabetes. Materials and Methods: Smears were taken from the buccal mucosa of 30 diabetes patients (study group) and 30 healthy individuals (control group). All the smears were stained with rapid Papanicolaou stain (PAP). In the PAP smears, the nuclear area (NA), cytoplasmic area (CA), and cytoplasmic-to-nuclear ratio (CNR) were evaluated for 50 cells in each smear, using the Image Analysis Software (Magnus Pro™) and research microscope (Lawrence and Mayo™). Results: The results showed that the mean NA was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the study group, whereas, the mean CA did not exhibit a statistically significant difference (P > 0.001). The mean CNR was significantly lower in the study group (P < 0.001). Interpretation and Conclusion: The results associated with the clinical observations suggest that diabetes can produce morphological and functional alterations in the oral epithelial cells, detectable by microscopic and cytomorphometric analysis using exfoliative cytology, which can be used in the diagnosis of the disease.
  2,520 257 -
A survey assessing modes of maintaining denture hygiene among elderly patients
Ashishtaru Saha, Sudipto Dutta, Rana K Varghese, Vinay Kharsan, Anil Agrawal
September-December 2014, 4(3):145-148
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.142007  PMID:25374830
Objective: To determine the denture hygiene habits in complete denture wearers. Materials and Methods: In this study, a self-administered structured questionnaire was developed to know the attitude of the patients from the Department of Prosthodontics regarding denture hygiene. The study sample consisted of totally 500 subjects, which included 284 (56.8%) males and 216 (43.2%) females. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 15.0 with Chi-square (χ2 ) test at P < 0.05. Results: Nearly half of the subjects cleaned their dentures daily once. Participants from the younger age group and who had been wearing dentures since 2 years maintained better frequency of cleaning. The majority of these subjects used water and brush for denture cleansing. After seeing the condition, more than half of the dentures were rated as poor (60%). There was significant difference between all the groups on comparison (P = 0.001). Conclusion: Poor condition of complete dentures seen in the population is mainly due to irregular cleansing habits and also less usage of cleansing solutions. Dentists should give proper instructions regarding maintenance of denture hygiene.
  2,387 278 5
Effect of tetracycline HCl in the treatment of chronic periodontitis - A clinical study
Sachin Sinha, Santosh Kumar, Namrata Dagli, Rushabh J Dagli
September-December 2014, 4(3):149-153
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.142011  PMID:25374831
Objective: This study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the adjunctive use of tetracycline fibers (Periodontal Plus AB ® ) as a local drug delivery with scaling and root planing, as compared with the results of one episode of scaling and root planing for the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: The effectiveness of Periodontal Plus AB (tetracycline fiber) was assessed in 100 patients suffering from chronic periodontitis using split-mouth technique. Statistical Analysis: The relative efficacy of the two treatment modalities was evaluated using the paired Student's t-test, and the comparative evaluation between the two groups was done using the independent Student's t-test. Results: Significant improvement was found in all the variables, including reduction in pocket depth and gain in clinical attachment level, in both test and control groups in 3 months, which was statistically significant. Mean reduction in pocket depth and gain in clinical attachment level were more in test than in control group. Conclusion: Tetracycline fiber therapy along with scaling and root planing improves the healing outcome, namely, reduction in pocket depth and gain in clinical attachment level, when compared to scaling and root planing alone.
  1,899 231 5
Assessment of lip print patterns and its use for personal identification among the populations of Rajnandgaon, Chhattisgarh, India
Suraj Multani, Vivek Thombre, Aparna Thombre, Pratik Surana
September-December 2014, 4(3):170-174
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.142018  PMID:25374835
Background: Personal identification plays an inevitable role in forensic investigation. Lip print is one of the evidences that can be left in the crime scene, which helps in identification purpose. Hence, the present study was undertaken to provide deeper inside view of use of cheiloscopy in personal identification, focusing on sex and age variability of lip print patterns in the population of Rajnandgaon city, Chhattisgarh, India. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted among 200 (100 males and 100 females) subjects of age 15-55 years, residing in different areas of Rajnandgaon city. The sex of the individual was determined as per the description given by Vahanwala et al. Frequency distribution and Chi-square test were used for data analysis by SPSS 16.0 V software. Results: The most common lip print pattern in entire population was Type I (27.5%). Very highly significant difference was found in the distribution of lip print patterns among males and females in the entire population, group I, and group III, respectively (P < 0.0001). The overall accuracy of cheiloscopy in sex determination was (high) 87.95%, 87.65%, 90.5%, and 80% in group 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Conclusion: Thus, it can be concluded that lip prints can be used as one of the important forensic tools for personal identification on the basis of their age and gender variability among the populations.
  1,847 192 3
Comparison of root canal sealer distribution in obturated root canal: An in-vitro study
Gaurav Setya, Ajay Nagpal, Sunil Kumar, Navin Anand Ingle
September-December 2014, 4(3):193-197
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.142028  PMID:25374839
Background and Objectives: Endodontic sealer is currently regarded with such importance in the root canal treatment that it is often considered to be more important than the core obturating material itself. Sealer with the least film thickness is favorable for minimizing microleakage. The aim of the study is to compare sealer distribution in root canal using three different sealers with three different obturation techniques. Materials and Methods: AH plus, Fuji-1, Tubliseal Extended Working Time (EWT) was placed into the prepared root canals of 90 maxillary central incisors using a lentulospiral. Thereafter, the canals were obturated using three different gutta-percha root filling techniques (single cone, lateral condensation, vertical condensation). Horizontal sectioning was carried out at 3 mm and 6 mm from the apex with a diamond disk. The two specimens thus obtained were examined for sealer distribution using a stereomicroscope and the percentage of sealer coating the perimeter (PSCP) was calculated using a digital imaging system. Results: A significant difference existed in the mean PSCP values of three different sealers (P < 0.000), where Tubliseal (EWT) had the highest PSCP values followed by the AH plus and Fuji-1. Also, between techniques, differences were observed (P < 0.00), where a single cone technique had the highest mean values followed by lateral condensation and vertical condensation. Between the 3 mm and 6 mm sections a non-significant difference was observed (P < 0.945). Conclusion: Tubliseal EWT showed highest PSCP value and Single cone technique showed the higher PSCP value then lateral and vertical condensation technique at 3 mm and 6 mm sections.
  1,696 222 1
Impact of caries prevalence on oral health-related quality of life among police personnel in Virajpet, South India
Kanuvanaghatta Nagesh Abhishek, Supreetha Shamarao, Jithesh Jain, Reshmi Haridas, Sunil Lingaraj Ajagannanavar, Sneha Chandrashekhar Khanapure
September-December 2014, 4(3):188-192
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.142027  PMID:25374838
Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the impact of caries prevalence on oral health-related quality of life among police personnel in Virajpet, South India. Materials and Methods: Police personnel were randomly selected from the 296 police staff working in Virajpet, India. They were invited for a dental examination and a questionnaire survey. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect their demographic information, and to determine the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). Caries experiences of the participants were recorded as per the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria (1997). The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare within-group differences of the selected sociodemographic factors and the Chi-square analysis was used to explore the association between the variables. Results: All the 172 invited participants joined this study. Their mean age was 38.02 ± 9.08 years. There was no significant difference in oral health-related quality of life scores according to gender and age. The prevalence of dental caries was found to be 78% in the current study. Data analysis showed that there was no statistically significant association between the oral health-related quality of life scores and caries prevalence. Conclusion: The present study showed that there was no association between the oral health-related quality of life and caries prevalence among the police personnel in Virajpet.
  1,515 179 -