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   2015| March-April  | Volume 5 | Issue 2  
    Online since April 23, 2015

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Bactericidal activity of propylene glycol, glycerine, polyethylene glycol 400, and polyethylene glycol 1000 against selected microorganisms
Triveni Mohan Nalawade, Kishore Bhat, Suma H. P. Sogi
March-April 2015, 5(2):114-119
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.155736  PMID:25992336
Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the bactericidal activity of propylene glycol, glycerine, polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400), and polyethylene glycol 1000 (PEG 1000) against selected microorganisms in vitro. Materials and Methods: Five vehicles, namely propylene glycol, glycerine, PEG 400, PEG 1000, and combination of propylene glycol with PEG 400, were tested for their bactericidal activity. The minimum bactericidal concentration was noted against four standard strains of organisms, i.e. Streptococcus mutans American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 25175, Streptococcus mutans ATCC 12598, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 35550, and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, using broth dilution assay. Successful endodontic therapy depends upon thorough disinfection of root canals. In some refractory cases, routine endodontic therapy is not sufficient, so intracanal medicaments are used for proper disinfection of canals. Intracanal medicaments are dispensed with vehicles which aid in increased diffusion through the dentinal tubules and improve their efficacy. Among the various vehicles used, glycerine is easily available, whereas others like propylene glycol and polyethylene glycol have to be procured from appropriate sources. Also, these vehicles, being viscous, aid in sustained release of the medicaments and improve their handling properties. The most commonly used intracanal medicaments like calcium hydroxide are ineffective on many microorganisms, while most of the other medicaments like MTAD (Mixture of Tetracycline, an Acid, and a Detergent) and Triple Antibiotic Paste (TAP) consist of antibiotics which can lead to development of antibiotic resistance among microorganisms. Thus, in order to use safer and equally effective intracanal medicaments, newer alternatives like chlorhexidine gluconate, ozonized water, etc., are being explored. Similarly, the five vehicles mentioned above are being tested for their antimicrobial activity in this study. Results: All vehicles exhibited bactericidal activity at 100% concentration. Conclusion: Propylene glycol was effective against three organisms namely S. mutans E. faecalis and E. coli and its bactericidal activity was at 50%, 25% and 50% respectively. PEG 1000 was effective against S. mutans and E. coli at 25%. Hence propylene glycol was effective on more number of organisms of which E. faecalis is a known resistant species. PEG 1000 was bactericidal at a lower concentration but was effective on two organisms only.
  26 4,856 367
Probiotics: Healthy bugs and nourishing elements of diet
Vijayendra Pandey, Vikas Berwal, Neeraj Solanki, Narender Singh Malik
March-April 2015, 5(2):81-87
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.155726  PMID:25992331
The use of probiotics is based on the concept that adding the right live microbes to the complex human system can result in physiological benefits. The benefit of fermented milk in human diet has been acknowledged since Vedic times; however, the scientific interest in this field was evoked by Ellie Metchinkoff who recommended that people should consume fermented milk containing lactobacilli to prolong their lives, as accelerated aging is due to autointoxication caused by the toxins produced by the gut microflora. They have been used to improve gastrointestinal health and their attractiveness has evinced interest to study their role in the promotion of oral health also. Studies have been widely carried out to establish the role of intestinal lactobacilli as probiotic to treat various gastrointestinal disorders, but only limited studies are available on the oral use of probiotics. The probiotic products usually contain lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, and their demand in the market is growing day by day. This paper provides an overview of various studies in the literature that emphasize on the role of probiotics to combat oral diseases and encourages more research in this field.
  9 3,915 258
Prevalence of early childhood caries and its risk factors in 18-72 month old children in Salem, Tamil Nadu
Arokiaraj Stephen, Ramesh Krishnan, Maya Ramesh, Vasaviah Suresh Kumar
March-April 2015, 5(2):95-102
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.155731  PMID:25992333
Background: Early childhood caries (ECC) is one of the most common dental diseases among the preschoolers, leading to suboptimal health. A study was planned to evaluate the prevalence of ECC in preschool children in the age group between 18 and 72 months and its relationship with parent's education and socioeconomic status of the family. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 2771 children selected randomly, in the age group 18-72 months and attending playschools and primary schools in urban, semi-urban, and rural areas of Salem, Tamil Nadu. A modified Winter et al. questionnaire and a proforma were used for collecting information on each child. The completed questionnaire and proformas were statistically analyzed and evaluated. The statistical analysis was done using Student's t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) to obtain mean values. Results: The prevalence of ECC in Salem was 16% with a mean dfs of 5.23 ± 1. Prevalence was high among the children of low socioeconomic status group and the children of working mothers, with a mean dfs of 10.47. Conclusion: The prevalence of ECC was 16% in Salem, Tamil Nadu. ECC was seen more in children of working mothers, lower parental education, and lower socioeconomic groups.
  8 3,098 263
Evaluation of knowledge and attitude of school teachers about emergency management of traumatic dental injury
Mala Singh, Navin Anand Ingle, Navpreet Kaur, Pramod Yadav
March-April 2015, 5(2):108-113
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.155735  PMID:25992335
Introduction: Traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) are widespread in the population and are a serious dental public health problem among children. Dental trauma may cause both functional and esthetic problems, with possible impacts on the patient's quality of life. Aim: To investigate teacher's knowledge and attitudes of Mathura city about emergency management of TDIs in children. Materials and Methods: A total of 352 teachers from total 23 schools of Mathura city were included in the study. Data were collected through a survey, which included a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of three major parts containing multiple-choice questions. Results: Among the teachers 51.1% were males and 48.9% were females. Majority of the respondents, that is, 33.5% were between 31 and 40 years of age. Most respondents (34%) had more than 10 years of teaching experience. Majority of the teachers (39.2%) had educational qualification other than B.Ed. and M.Ed. degrees. Physical education teachers comprised the largest group of school teachers. Regarding knowledge and attitude, the teachers with 10-20 years of teaching experience, physical education teachers, and the teachers other than B.Ed. and M.Ed. qualifications had given more correct answers to the questions when compared with other groups. Conclusion: For the teachers having a low level of knowledge, there is a need for greater awareness to improve teachers' knowledge and attitudes related to the emergency management of TDIs in children by organizing educative and motivational programs.
  5 2,334 229
Development of pyogenic granuloma and hemangioma after placement of dental implants: A review of literature
Hashem Motahir Al-Shamiri, Nader Ahmed Alaizari, Sadeq Ali Al-Maweri, Bassel Tarakji
March-April 2015, 5(2):77-80
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.155725  PMID:25992330
Aim: The aim of this study is to highlight the development of pyogenic granuloma and hemangioma after the placement of dental implants. Materials and Methods: A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, accessed via the National Library of Medicine PubMed Interface, for articles published between 2000 and 2014 in English, relating to the occurrence of pyogenic granuloma or hemangioma in relation to dental implants. Results: Our search identified only four case reports of pyogenic granuloma and hemangioma related to dental implants as reported in the English literature. Conclusion: Placement of dental implants can cause development of pyogenic granuloma and hemangioma, indicating that placement of dental implants requires well-trained specialists with perfect skills in dental implantology. Furthermore, the critical selection of the appropriate case is of paramount importance to avoid the occurrence of such complications.
  4 1,763 198
Significance of maternal periodontal health in preeclampsia
Khushboo Desai, Parth Desai, Shilpa Duseja, Santosh Kumar, Jaideep Mahendra, Sareen Duseja
March-April 2015, 5(2):103-107
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.155734  PMID:25992334
Objective: The aim of the present case-control study was to evaluate the association between maternal periodontitis and preeclampsia. Association studies between maternal periodontitis and elevated risk for preeclampsia have shown conflicting results. Periodontal maintenance is necessary to reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes like preeclampsia. Materials and Methods: Periodontal parameters [bleeding on probing, probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment level (CAL)] of 1320 women were assessed, followed by retrieval of their demographic and medical data from the medical records. Based on the medical records, 80 women were excluded from the study, leaving 1240 females as the eligible sample for the study. The women were divided into control group (1120 non-preeclamptic women who gave birth to infants with adequate gestational age) and case group (120 preeclamptic women). Logistic regression analysis revealed that primiparity and maternal periodontitis were the two significant variables causing preeclampsia. Further analysis was carried out by matching the two groups for primiparity to find the significance of maternal periodontitis. Maternal periodontitis was defined as PD ≥4 mm and CAL ≥3 mm at the same site in at least four teeth. Results: The results showed that maternal periodontitis (odds ratio 19.8) was associated with preeclampsia. Maternal periodontitis also remained associated with preeclampsia after matching for primiparity, which was another significant confounding factor in the study (odds ratio 9.33). Conclusion: Maternal periodontitis is a risk factor associated with preeclampsia, emphasizing the importance of periodontal care in prenatal programs.
  2 1,596 134
Effect of preoperative oral midazolam sedation on separation anxiety and emergence delirium among children undergoing dental treatment under general anesthesia
Hisham Yehia El Batawi
March-April 2015, 5(2):88-94
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.155728  PMID:25992332
Aim: To investigate the possible effects of preoperative oral Midazolam on parental separation anxiety, emergence delirium, and post-anesthesia care unit time on children undergoing dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia. Methods: Randomized, prospective, double-blind study. Seventy-eight American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) I children were divided into two groups of 39 each. Children of the first group were premedicated with oral Midazolam 0.5 mg/kg, while children of the control group were premedicated with a placebo. Scores for parental separation, mask acceptance, postoperative emergence delirium, and time spent in the post-anesthesia care unit were compared statistically. Results: The test group showed significantly lower parental separation scores and high acceptance rate for anesthetic mask. There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding emergence delirium and time spent in post-anesthesia care unit. Conclusions: Preoperative oral Midazolam could be a useful adjunct in anxiety management for children suffering dental anxiety. The drug may not reduce the incidence of postoperative emergence delirium. The suggested dose does not seem to affect the post-anesthesia care unit time.
  2 2,196 286
"Education level" responsible for inequities in oral practices among 15-34-year-old individuals in Jizan, Saudi Arabia
Syed Ali Peeran, Syed Wali Peeran, Fuad Al Sanabani, Bandar Almakramani, Elfatih Ibrahim Elham, Puvvadi G Naveen Kumar
March-April 2015, 5(2):120-124
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.155737  PMID:25992337
Background: Education plays an important role and is a second major (non-medical dimensional) factor influencing the health status. Individuals demonstrate oral practices that impact the oral health positively or negatively. This study analyzes how self-reported oral practices are influenced by different educational levels among young adults in Jizan. Materials and Methods: The survey was conducted in four areas around University of Jizan. The survey subjects, aged between 15 and 34 years, completed the self-administered, structured questionnaire. Inter-group comparison was done using Chi-square test. Level of significance was fixed at P < 0.05. Results: Exactly 1597 subjects completed the survey. Of these, 644 (40.3%) had attained higher education, 884 (55.4%) had lower education, and 69 (4.3%) were illiterate. Statistical comparisons showed significant differences among the three groups with respect to the use of toothbrushes (χ2 = 88.67, P < 0.001), use of interdental cleaning aids (χ2 = 15.04, P < 0.001), siwak use (χ2 = 16.31, P < 0.001), cigarette smoking (χ2 = 14.28, P < 0.001), and khat chewing (χ2 = 38.1, P < 0.001). Siwak use was more among those with low educational level and illiterates. Further, smoking and khat chewing were significantly more prevalent among illiterates. Conclusion: The subjects with low education and the illiterates exercise harmful oral practices. This study indicates that educational level is responsible for inequities in oral practices.
  1 1,406 105
Bacteriological evaluation of Allium sativum oil as a new medicament for pulpotomy of primary teeth
Shukry Gamal Mohammad, Kusai Baroudi
March-April 2015, 5(2):125-130
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.155738  PMID:25992338
Objective: To compare the effects of Allium sativum oil and formocresol on the pulp tissue of the pulpotomized teeth. Materials and Methods: Twenty children were selected for this study. All children had a pair of non-vital primary molars. A sterile paper point was dipped in the root canals prior to the mortal pulpotomy. These paper points were collected in transfer media and immediately transported to the microbiological lab to be investigated microbiologically (for Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus). Then the procedure of mortal pulpotomy was performed. After 2 weeks, the cotton pellets were removed and sterile paper points were dipped in the root canals for microbiological examination. Then comparison between the count of bacteria before and after treatment was conducted. Statistical analysis was performed using independent t-test and paired t-test at the significance level of α = 0.05. Results: After application of both medicaments, there was a marked decrease in S. mutans and L. acidophilus counts. The difference between the mean of log values of the count before and after the application was highly significant for both medicaments (P < 0.05); however, better results were obtained when A. sativum oil was used. Conclusion: A. sativum oil had more powerful antimicrobial effects than formocresol on the bacteria of the infected root canals.
  - 1,742 153
Effectiveness of the supraomohyoid neck dissection in clinically N0 neck patients with squamous cell carcinoma of buccal mucosa and gingivobuccal sulcus
S. A. K. Uroof Rahamthulla, P Vani Priya, S. M. D. Javeed Hussain, Fazil Arshad Nasyam, Syed Akifuddin, Velpula Sasidhar Srinivas
March-April 2015, 5(2):131-140
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.155740  PMID:25992339
Background: To evaluate the effectiveness of the supraomohyoid neck dissection in clinically N0 neck patients with squamous cell carcinoma of buccal mucosa and gingivobuccal sulcus. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study of five patients with squamous cell carcinoma of gingivobuccal mucosa of oral cavity with clinically N0 neck, conducted over a period of 2 years from July 2007 to Oct 2009 in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Narayana Dental College and Hospital. The study was conducted in patients irrespective of age, sex, size, thickness, and type of differentiation of the lesion. All patients have clinically non-palpable lymphnodes (N0 neck), while patients with palpable lymphnodes, patients with previous surgery, and patients with previous radiotherapy were excluded from the study. Results: Level I was the commonest site of neck metastasis in our study. Among the five patients, two (40%) patients (case 2 and 3) had occult cervical metastasis (level IB nodes are histopathologically positive nodes) and the remaining three patients (60%) had no occult cervical metastasis. The recurrence rate was 20% for patients who received postoperative radiotherapy. There was no morbidity and postoperative dysfunction and the mortality rate was only 20% in our study. Conclusion: Supraomohyoid neck dissection is the therapeutic procedure in clinically N0 neck patients with squamous cell carcinoma of buccal mucosa and gingivobuccal sulcus of mandible. Supraomohyoid neck dissection, when indicated, contributes to the concept of less-invasive surgery and offers functional and aesthetic advantages without compromising the clearance with minimal morbidity.
  - 1,610 109