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   2015| May-June  | Volume 5 | Issue 3  
    Online since July 3, 2015

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Zirconia in dental implantology: A review
Abhishek Apratim, Prashanti Eachempati, Kiran Kumar Krishnappa Salian, Vijendra Singh, Saurabh Chhabra, Sanket Shah
May-June 2015, 5(3):147-156
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.158014  PMID:26236672
Background: Titanium has been the most popular material of choice for dental implantology over the past few decades. Its properties have been found to be most suitable for the success of implant treatment. But recently, zirconia is slowly emerging as one of the materials which might replace the gold standard of dental implant, i.e., titanium. Materials and Methods: Literature was searched to retrieve information about zirconia dental implant and studies were critically analyzed. PubMed database was searched for information about zirconia dental implant regarding mechanical properties, osseointegration, surface roughness, biocompatibility, and soft tissue health around it. The literature search was limited to English language articles published from 1975 to 2015. Results: A total of 45 papers met the inclusion criteria for this review, among the relevant search in the database. Conclusion: Literature search showed that some of the properties of zirconia seem to be suitable for making it an ideal dental implant, such as biocompatibility, osseointegration, favourable soft tissue response and aesthetics due to light transmission and its color. At the same time, some studies also point out its drawbacks. It was also found that most of the studies on zirconia dental implants are short-term studies and there is a need for more long-term clinical trials to prove that zirconia is worth enough to replace titanium as a biomaterial in dental implantology.
  31 5,420 440
Evaluation of premalignant and malignant lesions by fluorescent light (VELscope)
Dania Sawan, Ammar Mashlah
May-June 2015, 5(3):248-254
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.159967  PMID:26236687
Aim: The purpose of this study was the early detection of premalignant and malignant oral soft lesions by fluorescent light (VELscope). Materials and Methods: A total of 748 patients were evaluated through clinical and fluorescent light analysis of the entire oral cavity. Any lesion that was detected underwent a surgical excision biopsy as the golden standard for the detection of the lesion's histology; then a comparison was made between the results to assure the efficacy of the fluorescent light analysis outcome. Results: About 9.4% of the lesions detected were abnormal lesions and 83.09% had loss of fluorescent light effect. Based on the use of surgical biopsy, the machine had a sensitivity of 74.1% and a specificity of 96.3%. According to the statistical analysis, the P value was much lower than 0.05, so we can conclude that at 95% confidence level, there was significant agreement between VELscope results and biopsy results. Kappa coefficient value was approximately 0.5, which means that the strength of the agreement was medium. Conclusion: VELscope can be used as a clinical diagnostic aid in the detection of premalignant and malignant lesions of the oral cavity. In addition, it helps in the detection of the borders in both surgical biopsy and surgical excision.
  14 2,718 236
Assessment of the awareness level of dental students toward Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-coronavirus
Mohamed Yasser Kharma, Mohamad Sadek Alalwani, Manal Fouad Amer, Bassel Tarakji, Ghassan Aws
May-June 2015, 5(3):163-169
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.159951  PMID:26236674
Background: Infection prevention and control measures are critical to prevent the possible spread of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in healthcare facilities. Therefore, healthcare workers should be aware of all procedures concerning prevention of and protection from MERS-CoV. Objective: The aim of this study is to improve the knowledge of the dental students and evaluate their awareness about MERS-CoV. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was made according to MOH information and 200 dental students (Al-Farabi Colleges, Jeddah) were interviewed to evaluate their knowledge about MERS-CoV. Results: More than half of the dental students (54%) interviewed had good knowledge about the etiology, symptoms, and treatment of MERS-CoV. Measurements for infection control and protection were also known (79%). The sources of information for the students were: college (27%), MOH (25%), media (24%), and social community (23%), while 17% of the students interviewed had no idea about it. Conclusion: Dental students had good knowledge about MERS-CoV. However, more information still must be provided by MOH and college for the medical staff.
  12 4,235 347
Comparing the antiplaque efficacy of 0.5% Camellia sinensis extract, 0.05% sodium fluoride, and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash in children
Chaitali U Hambire, Rashmi Jawade, Amol Patil, Vaibhav R Wani, Ankur A Kulkarni, Parag B Nehete
May-June 2015, 5(3):218-226
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.158016  PMID:26236682
Background: Dental caries is a multifactorial disease which requires a susceptible host, a cariogenic microflora, and a suitable substrate that must be present for a sufficient length of time. Tea is prepared by the infusion of dried leaves of the tea plant, Camellia sinensis, which contains bioactive compounds like polyphenols, flavonoids, and catechins that are thought to be responsible for the health benefits that have traditionally been attributed to tea. These compounds have multidimensional effects such as antibacterial action, inhibitory action on the bacterial and salivary amylase, and inhibition of acid production. Aims: The aim of this study is to compare the antiplaque efficacy of 0.5% C. sinensis extract, 0.05% sodium fluoride, and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash in children. Materials and Methods: A randomized blinded controlled trial with 60 healthy children of age group 9-14 years was carried out. The subjects were randomly assigned to three groups, i.e. group A - 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate, group B - 0.05% sodium fluoride, and group C - 0.5% C. sinensis extract, with 20 subjects per group. Plaque accumulation and gingival condition were recorded using plaque index and gingival index. Oral hygiene was assessed by simplified oral hygiene index (OHIS). Salivary pH was assessed using indikrom pH strips. Plaque, gingival, and simplified OHI scores as well as salivary pH were recorded at baseline, immediately after first rinse, after 1 week, and in the 2 nd week. Statistical Analysis Used: The data were analyzed using a computer software program (SPSS version 17). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests were used to identify significant differences between the means of the study groups. Finally, paired t-tests were used to assess the significance of changes within each group between time periods. Critical P values of significance were set at 0.05 and the confidence level set at 95%. Results: Mean plaque and gingival scores were reduced over the 2-week trial period in the experimental groups. Antiplaque effectiveness was observed in all groups, the highest being in group C (P < 0.05). Chlorhexidine gluconate and tea showed comparative effectiveness on gingiva better than sodium fluoride (P < 0.05). The salivary pH increase was sustained and significant in groups B and C compared to group A. Oral hygiene improvement was better appreciated in groups A and C. Conclusions: The effectiveness of 0.5% C. sinensis extract was more compared to 0.05% sodium fluoride and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouth rinses. It should be explored as a cost-effective and safe long-term adjunct to oral self-care of patients as it has prophylactic benefits with minimum side effects.
  11 2,806 218
Role of yoga and physical activity in work-related musculoskeletal disorders among dentists
Suneetha Koneru, Rambabu Tanikonda
May-June 2015, 5(3):199-204
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.159957  PMID:26236679
Background: Work-related musculoskeletal pain is one of the occupational hazards in dentists. Aims: To find the prevalence and severity of musculoskeletal pain in dentists, to compare musculoskeletal pain among dentists practicing yoga, those practicing physical activities, and those without any physical activity, and also to know the effects of sex, age, and workload on musculoskeletal pain. Materials and Methods: A self-reporting work-related questionnaire and the Nordic questionnaire for analysis of musculoskeletal disorders were given to graduated dentists attending Indian dental conference in Mumbai, to know the musculoskeletal pain experienced in the last 12 months and feedback was obtained from 220 dentists. Results: The prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in dentists was 34.5%. Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain was 10.5%, 21.7%, and 45.6% in dentists with regular yoga practice, other physical activity, and no physical activity, respectively. There was statistically significant difference in the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among dentists who were practicing yoga when compared with those in no regular activity group. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study, there was significant role of physical activity on the quality and quantity of work-related musculoskeletal disorders experienced by dentists. Yoga was found to be more effective than other modes of physical activities. More research is needed on musculoskeletal problems in dentists, with an emphasis on larger sample sizes and correlating other factors like age and sex of the dentists, duration of practice, years of practicing yoga, and working hours per week.
  8 2,659 250
Effectiveness of supervised oral health maintenance in hearing impaired and mute children- A parallel randomized controlled trial
Sonia Pareek, Anup Nagaraj, Asif Yousuf, Shravani Ganta, Mansi Atri, Kushpal Singh
May-June 2015, 5(3):176-182
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.159953  PMID:26236676
Context: Individuals with special needs may have great limitations in oral hygiene performance due to their potential motor, sensory, and intellectual disabilities. Thus, oral health care utilization is low among the disabled people. Hearing disorders affect the general behavior and impair the level of social functioning. Objectives: The present study was conducted to assess the dental health outcomes following supervised tooth brushing among institutionalized hearing impaired and mute children in Jaipur, Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: The study followed a single-blind, parallel, and randomized controlled design. A total of 315 students were divided into three groups of 105 children each. Group A included resident students, who underwent supervised tooth brushing under the supervision of their parents. The non-resident students were further divided into two groups: Group B and Group C. Group B children were under the supervision of a caregiver and Group C children were under the supervision of both investigator and caregiver. Results: There was an average reduction in plaque score during the subsequent second follow-up conducted 3 weeks after the start of the study and in the final follow-up conducted at 6 weeks. There was also a marked reduction in the gingival index scores in all the three groups. Conclusion: The program of teacher and parent supervised toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste can be safely targeted to socially deprived communities and can enable a significant reduction in plaque and gingival scores. Thus, an important principle of oral health education is the active involvement of parents and caregivers.
  4 2,056 222
Pathological evaluation for sterilization of routinely used prosthodontic and endodontic instruments
K Vinay Kumar, KS Kiran Kumar, S Supreetha, KN Raghu, Anusha Channabasappa Veerabhadrappa, S Deepthi
May-June 2015, 5(3):232-236
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.159962  PMID:26236684
Background: In daily practice of dentistry, we use same instruments on many patients. Before use, all instruments must be cleaned, disinfected, and sterilized to prevent any contamination. Pre-cleaning and sterilization of some devices can be difficult because of their small size and complex architecture. Dental burs and endodontic files are such instruments. Dental burs come in a variety of shapes and sizes, all with highly complex and detailed surface features. Aim: To determine the effectiveness of various disinfectants and sterilization techniques for disinfection and resterilization of dental burs and endodontic files. Materials and Methods: The materials used for the study were dental burs and endodontic files. Disinfectants used were Quitanet plus, glutaraldehyde, glass-bead sterilizer, and autoclave. The sterility of used dental burs and endodontic files was analyzed. Burs and files that had been used were pre-cleaned, resterilized, and then tested for various pathogens. Each item was transferred by sterile technique into Todd-Hewitt broth, incubated at 37°C for 72 h, and observed for bacterial growth. Results: The present study shows that the endodontic files and burs sterilized by autoclaving and glutaraldehyde showed complete sterilization. Burs and files immersed in glutaraldehyde (2.4%) for 12 h showed complete sterilization, whereas Quitanet plus solution and glass-bead sterilizer showed incomplete sterilization. Conclusion: The present study results indicate that autoclaving and glutaraldehyde (2.4%) showed complete sterilization. Other methods cannot be relied upon for sterilization.
  3 2,065 146
The effect of three polishing systems on surface roughness of flowable, microhybrid, and packable resin composites
Ahmed Mohammed Hassan, Sameh Mahmoud Nabih, Hossam Mohammed Mossa, Kusai Baroudi
May-June 2015, 5(3):242-247
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.159965  PMID:26236686
Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of three different polishing systems on the surface roughness of three types of resin composite materials. Materials and Methods: Three types of resin composites (Heliomolar flow, TPH spectrum, and Tetric Ceram HB) and three polishing systems (Astropol, Enhance, and Soflex) were used. A total number of 40 samples were prepared from each one of the restorative materials and divided randomly into four groups (n = 10) according to the polishing procedure. The first group underwent no treatment and was used as a control group. Each one of the remaining groups was polished with one of the tested polishing systems. After completion of sample preparation, the mean surface roughness (Ra) value was measured using a surface profilometer. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: The control group of each material recorded the lowest Ra value. Among the tested polishing systems, the groups finished with Soflex system exhibited the lowest Ra value. Among the resin composites, Heliomolar flow exhibited the lowest Ra value, regardless of the polishing system used. Conclusions: The smoothest surface of all types of resin composite was achieved under Mylar strip.
  2 1,787 129
Efficacy of antimicrobial property of two commercially available chemomechanical caries removal agents (Carisolv and Papacarie): An ex vivo study
Maram Vinay Chand Reddy, AJ Sai Shankar, Venkata Girish Pentakota, Harika Kolli, Haritha Ganta, Pavan Kumar Katari
May-June 2015, 5(3):183-189
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.159955  PMID:26236677
Purpose: The purpose of the study is to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of Carisolv and Papacarie. There are only a few studies comparing the primary teeth. The objective of this study is to assess the effects of Carisolv and Papacarie on cariogenic flora and to compare them. Materials and Methods: Fifteen children aged 4-8 years who had at least two primary molars with broad occlusal cavitated lesions showing brown and softened dentin samples were selected. The selected 30 teeth were randomly divided into two groups of 15 teeth each for Carisolv and Papacarie. Dentin samples of both groups were taken prior to and following caries removal. The total viable count and lactobacilli count were determined and expressed as colony forming units per milliliter. The two methods of caries removal were then compared and the data were statistically analyzed. Results: The data of both agents (groups) were analyzed by Wilcoxon signed-rank test before and after application and showed statistical significance. Inter-comparison of data of both groups was analyzed by Mann-Whitney U test for total viable count and total Lactobacillus count which showed no statistical significance. Conclusion: Carisolv and Papacarie have similar antibacterial efficacy against cariogenic flora as chemomechanical caries removal agents.
  2 2,610 208
Clinical and radiographic evaluation of periodontal intrabony defects by open flap surgery alone or in combination with Biocollagen ® membrane: A randomized clinical trial
Essam I Elkhatat, Amr E Elkhatat, Saleh N Azzeghaiby, Bassel Tarakji, Khaled Beshr, Hossam Mossa
May-June 2015, 5(3):190-198
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.159956  PMID:26236678
Background: Guided tissue regeneration (GTR) is often incorporated in regenerative periodontal surgical procedures. However, the actual benefits of adding GTR to such a procedure remain undocumented. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to investigate the contribution of GTR to the outcomes of open flap debridement (OFD) in the treatment of intrabony defects. Materials and Methods: A total of 16 patients of both sexes satisfying the criteria of chronic periodontitis and each of whom displayed one intrabony defect were randomly assigned to two groups, i.e. either treated with open flap surgery and GTR (group 1) or with open flap surgery alone (group 2), in this parallel-arm study. The soft tissue and hard tissue measurements, including probing pocket depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and bone mineral density were recorded at baseline and 3,6 and 12 months after surgery. The differences with a P < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: Results showed that the membrane group showed significant difference when compared with open flap surgery alone, in relation to the degree of periodontal pocket, clinical attachment loss, and bone density. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that biocollagen membrane could be considered as an option in the treatment of intrabony defects. Biocollagen membrane alone gives favorable clinical results in the treatment of intrabony defects. Open flap debridement resulted in acceptable clinical results in the treatment of intrabony defects.
  2 2,708 159
Periodontal health awareness among gynecologists in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Ghousia Rahman, Farah Asa'ad, Mohammad Abdul Baseer
May-June 2015, 5(3):211-217
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.159959  PMID:26236681
Objective: To determine the knowledge of periodontal disease and pregnancy outcomes among the gynecologists practicing in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 200 randomly chosen gynecologists from Riyadh was carried out by using a structured, self-administered, closed-ended questionnaire. Knowledge of periodontal disease and possible ways of prevention; knowledge of periodontal disease and pregnancy outcomes; and oral self-care attitudes among gynecologists were assessed. Results: One-quarter of the gynecologists knew the meaning of dental plaque. Almost 57.5% believed that the frequency of toothbrushing should be increased during pregnancy. Eighty percent of gynecologists were aware of the serious effects of smoking on the pregnant woman and her child. Less than half (44.5%) believed that there is a relationship between gum disease and premature labor. Gynecologists working in the government sector were significantly more aware about the causes of inflamed gum in pregnancy, gum disease and its prevention, and negative effects of smoking on pregnancy. A significantly higher percentage of male and senior gynecologists aged between 50 and 54 years answered that gum disease would lead to the delivery of a preterm or low-birth-weight infant. Conclusion: Gynecologists considered in the present study showed an acceptable level of knowledge and awareness toward periodontal health and the association between periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes.
  1 1,906 153
Predictors of dental rehabilitation in children aged 3-12 years
Vellore Kannan Gopinath, Manal A Awad
May-June 2015, 5(3):227-231
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.159960  PMID:26236683
Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the proportion of completed treatments and to study the factors affecting the full mouth dental rehabilitation in pediatric patients treated by undergraduate students at the College of Dental Medicine Teaching Clinics, University of Sharjah. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on 270 children aged less than 12 years (mean age 7.6, SD 2.04). Comprehensive dental rehabilitation reports of child patients that were completed by final year dental undergraduate students from the year 2009 to 2011 were reviewed. Data  on complete history, oral examination, dental charting, and treatment plan were collected from pediatric dentistry case sheet. Dental caries was charted using WHO 1997 criteria. Dental treatment needs and completion of dental care delivered to children involved in this study were assessed using DMFT/deft scores. Results: Percentages of treatment provided included completed restorations (94%) and space management (84%) in primary dentition, whereas 98% of restoration and 94% of required sealants were completed in permanent dentition. The percentage of completed dental treatment including sealant placement was 61%. Age of the child and the number of decayed teeth present before the start of the treatment significantly correlated  with the children in the incomplete treatment category (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Therefore, a worthy dental care was provided in a holistic approach to the children attending College of Dental Medicine training clinics. Age of the child and the number of decayed teeth were the factors affecting dental rehabilitation in children aged 3-12 years.
  - 1,571 102
Prevalence of undiagnosed HIV infection among dental patients in a Nigerian secondary healthcare facility
OG Ogbebor, B Obisesan, IU Madukwe, Clement C Azodo
May-June 2015, 5(3):237-241
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.159963  PMID:26236685
Objective: To determine the prevalence of undiagnosed HIV infection among patients attending the Dental Clinic of General Hospital Minna, Niger State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The study was a prospective study of 1080 dental patients of General Hospital Minna. Results: Out of the 1080 patients counseled, only 200 gave consent to participate in the study. Of the 200 participants, 8 tested positive for HIV, giving a prevalence of 4.0%. Females and participants in the sixth and fifth decades of life were found to have higher prevalence of undiagnosed HIV. Corpers and traders had higher prevalence of undiagnosed HIV. Participants with periodontal complaints (bleeding gums and shaking teeth) also had higher prevalence of undiagnosed HIV. The proportion of participants that reported having knowledge about the actual existence, risk factors, and prevention of HIV/AIDS was high. The proportion of participants who expressed willingness to receive more information on HIV-related issues was high. Conclusion: One out of 25 patients attending this secondary healthcare setting for dental services had undiagnosed HIV infection. This highlights the need for the establishment of voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) unit in the dental clinics and also re-emphasizes the strict compliance of standard precaution in dental practices.
  - 1,355 104
Caries experience in the primary dentition and presence of plaque in 7-year-old Chinese children: A 4-year time-lag study
Xuan Hu, Mingwen Fan, Jan Mulder, JE Frencken
May-June 2015, 5(3):205-210
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.159958  PMID:26236680
Objectives: The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that dental caries prevalence and caries experience in primary dentitions has increased over 4 years and to compare the presence of plaque on permanent teeth in child cohorts over 4 years. Materials and Methods: A time-lag study design was used comprising two cohorts of children aged 7 years from the same five primary schools in Wuhan examined in 2007 and 2011. Two calibrated examiners visually assessed plaque accumulation according to the Greene and Vermillion Index and the dentitions according to the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) caries criteria. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), logistic regression, and Chi-square test were used to test for differences between dependent and independent variables. Results: The 2007 sample consisted of 817 children and the 2011 sample consisted of 1010 children. The prevalence of dental caries (d 3 mft) was 68.2% in 2007 and 67.7% in 2011, while that of d 2 mft was 78.5% in 2007 and 71.4% in 2011 (P < 0.0006). The mean d 3 mft score was 2.8 in 2007 and 3.1 in 2011 (P = 0.046), while the mean d 3 mfs score was 4.9 in 2007 and 7.3 in 2011 (P < 0.0001). The d 3 -component of the d 3 mft index was 73% in 2007 and 69% in 2011, while the f-component was 22% in 2007 and 26% in 2011. The hypothesis was not accepted. The proportion of children with plaque code 3 (extensive coverage) was higher in 2011 (21.8%) than in age mates in 2007 (5.7%). Conclusions: There were no obvious signs that dental caries prevalence had been increased in primary dentitions of this child population between 2007 and 2011. But as the mean caries experience scores at the surface level were higher in 2011 than in 2007, monitoring caries prevalence remains essential, but should start at an earlier age than that covered by this study. Health and educational authorities should collaborate in setting up programs aimed at ensuring good oral health for school children.
  - 1,504 127
Prevalence and characteristics of non-syndromic hypodontia among Turkish orthodontic patient population
Berna Gökkaya, Melih Motro, Betül Kargül
May-June 2015, 5(3):170-175
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.159952  PMID:26236675
Background: Hypodontia is often used as a collective term for congenital absence of primary or secondary teeth, although specifically it describes the absence of one to six teeth excluding third molars. The prevalence of hypodontia varies from 0.03 to 10.1% in various populations. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, we reviewed the records of Turkish orthodontic patients treated between 1994 and 2003. A total of 1236 orthodontic patients (507 girls, 729 boys) were included in this study. The age of the patients ranged from 11 to 20 years. Data were collected and entered into the SPSS 20 program for statistical analysis. The Chi-square test was used to analyze differences in the distribution of hypodontia, sex, and malocclusion type. Results: In the total sample of 1236 patients who were orthodontically treated, hypodontia was found in 82 children, including 45 girls and 37 boys. The prevalence of hypodontia was 7%. Patients with more severe hypodontia showed a tendency to exhibit a class II relationship. The mandibular second premolar were the most commonly missing teeth in 48 girls and 26 boys. Conclusion: Hypodontia may lead to some clinical problems including malocclusions, esthetic and functional complaints, and also psychological problems. All cases should be evaluated by an interdisciplinary approach for appropriate treatment choice. Our data emphasize the importance of detailed and careful radiographic examination. This helps in long-term and effective treatment planning according to a child's individual requirements.
  - 787 20
Efficacy of various combinations of irrigants and medicaments on Candida albican: An in vitro study
Mukund Singh, Vikrant O Kasat
May-June 2015, 5(3):157-162
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.159947  PMID:26236673
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), calcium hydroxide [Ca (OH) 2 ], and 2% chlorhexidine in various combinations on Candida albicans in root canals for 48 h and 10 days. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, 95 extracted teeth were instrumented. MTCC 183 strain of C. albicans was introduced into the root canals and after 7 days, the average value of colony forming units (CFUs)/ml was determined in all the roots. Then the teeth were randomly divided into three groups: Group I (n = 15) was the control group and only saline was added to it. In group II (n = 40), 3% NaOCl was used as the irrigant and in group III (n = 40), 3% NaOCl and 17% EDTA were used as irrigants. Groups II and III were further divided into two subgroups (A and B) having 20 teeth each. After irrigation, Ca (OH) 2 was placed in subgroup A and 2% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) solution in subgroup B of both groups as intracanal medicament. After 48 h, the CFUs/ml was determined in 45 teeth (5 from the control group and 10 from each subgroup). After 10 days, the CFUs/ml was determined in the remaining 50 teeth (10 from the control group and 10 from each subgroup). For statistical analysis, Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 15, Chicago IL, USA) was used. Results: A decrease in CFUs/ml of C. albicans was noted in all subgroups at 48 h, but the combination of NaOCl, EDTA, and CHX (group IIIB) was the most effective showing value of 0.095 × 10 5 CFUs/ml. On the 10 th day, the CFUs/ml of C. albicans was further decreased in all subgroups; but again, subgroup IIIB was the most effective showing a value of 0.025 × 10 5 CFUs/ml. There was statistically significant difference in CFUs/ml of C. albicans at 48 h and on 10 th day in all study groups. Conclusion: The antimicrobial activity of irrigant and intracanal medicament has a positive role in controlling the growth of C. albicans.
  - 1,660 164
Plasma fibrinogen degradation products in oral submucous fibrosis
Sonia Gupta, Manveen Kaur Jawanda, Nishant Mehta, Vikram Arora, Vipul Yadav
May-June 2015, 5(3):141-146
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.159930  PMID:26236671
Context: Plasma fibrinogen degradation products (FDPs) and oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF). Background: OSMF is a chronic, progressive, scarring disease of multifactorial etiology. Areca nut is found to be the main cause of this disease. But it has been found in the routine clinical practice that some individuals with the habit of areca nut chewing may not show any clinical evidence of OSMF, while some individuals without the habit of areca nut chewing are found to have OSMF. So, there must be some other factors associated with OSMF. Recently, plasma FDPs have been identified as an early indicator of disease in OSMF patients. A systematic review of their role would help to elucidate whether there is an association of these FDPs in the pathogenesis of OSMF or not. Objective: To review studies reported in the literature elucidating the role of these plasma FDPs in OSMF. Materials and Methods: Articles were searched in PubMed; MEDLINE using appropriate key words like "plasma fibrinogen degradation products" and "oral submucous fibrosis." Hand search of journals was also performed. Articles were reviewed and analyzed. Results: The search strategy revealed nine relevant articles which studied the role of these plasma FDPs in the etiopathogenesis of OSMF and further progression of this disease with the increased clinical grades and the risk of carcinoma, but the exact role of these factors is still obscure. Conclusion: The data validate the role of plasma FDPs in the etiopathogenesis of OSMF. Studies with a large sample size are still required to evaluate the definite association between these FDPs and OSMF. It has the advantage of being a noninvasive method to evaluate the stage of OSMF patients, instead of using the invasive techniques like biopsy.
  - 1,834 199