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   2016| May-June  | Volume 6 | Issue 3  
    Online since May 30, 2016

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A novel Chotta Bheem–Chutki scale for dental anxiety determination in children
Gunmeen Sadana, Rashu Grover, Manjul Mehra, Sunil Gupta, Jasmeet Kaur, Sukhmani Sadana
May-June 2016, 6(3):200-205
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.183108  PMID:27382534
Objective: A potential problem in patient management in pediatric dentistry is dental anxiety among children. It is of paramount importance for pediatric dentists to identify an anxious child and review potential management options specific to every child. The aim of this study is to validate a newly devised Chotta Bheem–Chutki (CBC) pictorial scale and to compare this with Venham's pictorial scale (VPS) and facial image scale (FIS) to measure dental anxiety in young children during their first dental visit. Materials and Methods: One hundred children aged 4–12 years were randomly selected from our hospital outpatient department. Child's anxiety levels were measured using three different scales; the VPS, FIS, and the newly devised CBC pictorial scale. The scores were recorded by asking the children to choose the figure they identified with at that instant. The scores obtained from all the three scales were compared using student's t-test. Pearson correlation test was used to obtain correlation among the scales used in the study. Results: A strong correlation (0.778) was found between FIS and CBC scale. Moreover, a strong correlation (0.811) was found between VPS and CBC scale, indicating good validity of the CBC scale. Seventy five percent of the children found CBC scale to be the easiest among the three scales. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that CBC scale can be used as a new tool for dental anxiety assessment in children.
  6,178 241 5
Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial effect of herbal root canal irrigants (Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica, Aloe vera) with sodium hypochlorite: An in vitro study
Prashant Babaji, Kiran Jagtap, Himani Lau, Nandita Bansal, S Thajuraj, Priti Sondhi
May-June 2016, 6(3):196-199
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.183104  PMID:27382533
Aim and Objectives: Successful root canal treatment involves the complete elimination of microorganism from the root canal and the three-dimensional obturation of the canal space. Enterococcus faecalis is the most commonly found bacteria in failed root canal. Chemical irrigation of canals along with biomechanical preparation helps in the elimination of microorganisms. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of herbal root canal irrigants (Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica extract, Aloe vera) with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Materials and Methods: The bacterial E. faecalis (ATCC) culture was grown overnight in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth and inoculated in Mueller–Hinton agar plates. Antibacterial inhibition was assessed using agar well diffusion method. All five study irrigants were added to respective wells in agar plates and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Bacterial inhibition zone around each well was recorded. Results were tabulated and statistically analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software for Windows, version 19.0. (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY. Results: Highest inhibitory zone against E. faecalis was seen in NaOCl fallowed by M. citrifolia and A. indica extract, and the least by A. vera extract. Conclusion: Tested herbal medicine (A. indica extract, M. citrifolia, A. vera) showed inhibitory zone against E. faecalis. Hence, these irrigants can be used as root canal irrigating solutions.
  3,981 297 5
Oral health status and treatment needs among 10126 school children in West Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh, India
M Ghanashyam Prasad, A Naga Radhakrishna, Halaswamy V Kambalimath, Shalini Chandrasekhar, B Deepthi, J Ramakrishna
May-June 2016, 6(3):213-218
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.183102  PMID:27382536
Objectives: Oral diseases are affecting a large percentage of children worldwide. This study with Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry collaboration was taken up with the aim to evaluate the oral health status and treatment needs in school-going children of the West Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 10126 school children who were randomly selected from 32 schools in West Godavari district. To find the significance of the obtained number of cases for different age groups, Chi-square test of significance was used. Results: The prevalence of dental conditions are as follows: Dental caries 63.5%, periodontal diseases 13.6%, dental anomalies 3.6%, dental trauma 3.2%, and orthodontic treatment 25.1%. Among the different age groups, 11–14 years age group has the highest prevalence of oral health problems. Females were more affected with dental caries (P = 0.17), orthodontic treatment needs (P = 0.12), and dental anomalies (P = 0.86) compared to males which was statistically insignificant. The highest prevalence of dental conditions in the case of females was observed during the age of 11–14 years, and in males, the peak was seen in the 15–18 years age group. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that school-going children in West Godavari district suffer from a high prevalence of dental conditions and have higher treatment needs.
  3,042 181 1
Evaluation of the effect of hydrogen peroxide as a mouthwash in comparison with chlorhexidine in chronic periodontitis patients: A clinical study
Hazem Tarek Rashed
May-June 2016, 6(3):206-212
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.183114  PMID:27382535
Aims and Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a mouthwash in comparison with chlorhexidine (CHX) in chronic periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 45 patients suffering from localized mild to moderate chronic periodontitis were chosen. The subjects were divided equally into three groups. Group A patients were treated only with scaling and root planning (SRP). Group B were treated with SRP in combination with 0.2% CHX gluconate mouthwash twice daily for 10 days. Group C were treated with SRP in combination with 1.5% H2O2mouthwash twice daily for 10 days. Gingival index, plaque index, pocket depth, and clinical attachment level were recorded for patients of all groups on day 0 (Baseline), 15, 30, and 90, respectively. Statistical analysis was done using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 22.0. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to assess the differences in the abovementioned indices because of time and groups. Results: Both CHX gluconate and H2O2mouthwashes significantly reduced the gingival index more than that observed in the control group, but similar to each other. There were no significant differences in the clinical attachment loss, plaque index, and pocket depth among the study groups, but improvement was seen within the CHX group participants. In participants with chronic periodontitis, SRP in combination with 0.2% CHX gluconate mouthwash was an effective treatment in reducing the gingival index and the pocket depth, as well as improving the clinical attachment level. Conclusion: The use of CHX gluconate was observed to be higher than H2O2for the reduction in the gingival index and the pocket depth, as well as for the improvement of the clinical attachment level.
  2,804 184 3
REVIEW ARTICLE
Are dentists involved in the treatment of obesity?
Mohamed Y Kharma, Ghassan Aws, Bassel Tarakji
May-June 2016, 6(3):183-188
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.183112  PMID:27382531
The morbidity and mortality associated with being overweight or obese have been known to the medical profession to be related with an increased risk of associated diseases. This article provides an overview of obesity and addresses possible strategies for the management of this important public health concern. This narrative review sheds light on the problem of obesity and the necessity of professional oral health care to work in partnership with the medical team for managing obesity. In this regard, general dental practitioners should at least reinforce their knowledge regarding obesity and understand their potential role in the treatment and management of obese patients.
  2,606 147 4
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A randomized clinical study for comparative evaluation of Aloe Vera and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash efficacy on de-novo plaque formation
Shivjot Chhina, Avnish Singh, Ipseeta Menon, Rickypal Singh, Anubhav Sharma, Vartika Aggarwal
May-June 2016, 6(3):251-255
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.183109  PMID:27382543
Objective: To comparatively assess the antiplaque efficacy of Aloe vera mouthwash and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash on de novo plaque formation. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized, single blind, parallel, controlled clinical study with 90 healthy participants, with mean age of 27.19 ± 12.08 years. After thorough oral prophylaxis, participants were instructed to discontinue mechanical plaque control. Participants were divided randomly into three groups; pure Aloe vera mouthwash was dispensed to the test group; control group received 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash; in Placebo group, flavored distilled water was used as oral rinse twice daily. Effect on 4-day de novo plaque formation was assessed by comparing pre-rinsing Quigley Hein Modified Plaque Scores were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance and Student's t-test. Results: Post-rinsing control group showed the least plaque score which was comparable to the test group. Both the control group and test group showed significant difference with the placebo group. Conclusions: Herbal mouthwash containing Aloe vera mouthwash has comparable antiplaque efficacy as the gold standard 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate with fewer side effects and can be considered as an alternative.
  2,565 174 8
Retention of denture bases fabricated by three different processing techniques — An in vivo study
VH Chalapathi Kumar, Hemchand Surapaneni, V Ravikiran, B Sarat Chandra, Srilatha Balusu, V Naveen Reddy
May-June 2016, 6(3):245-250
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.183106  PMID:27382542
Aim: Distortion due to Polymerization shrinkage compromises the retention. To evaluate the amount of retention of denture bases fabricated by conventional, anchorized, and injection molding polymerization techniques. Materials and Methods: Ten completely edentulous patients were selected, impressions were made, and master cast obtained was duplicated to fabricate denture bases by three polymerization techniques. Loop was attached to the finished denture bases to estimate the force required to dislodge them by retention apparatus. Readings were subjected to nonparametric Friedman two-way analysis of variance followed by Bonferroni correction methods and Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test. Results: Denture bases fabricated by injection molding (3740 g), anchorized techniques (2913 g) recorded greater retention values than conventional technique (2468 g). Significant difference was seen between these techniques. Conclusions: Denture bases obtained by injection molding polymerization technique exhibited maximum retention, followed by anchorized technique, and least retention was seen in conventional molding technique.
  2,451 180 1
Effect of anodization and alkali-heat treatment on the bioactivity of titanium implant material (an in vitro study)
Ramy A Abdelrahim, Nadia A Badr, Kusai Baroudi
May-June 2016, 6(3):189-195
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.183107  PMID:27382532
Objective: This study was aimed to assess the effect of anodized and alkali-heat surface treatment on the bioactivity of titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) after immersion in Hank's solution for 7 days. Materials and Methods: Fifteen titanium alloy samples were used in this study. The samples were divided into three groups (five for each), five samples were anodized in 1M H3PO4at constant voltage value of 20 v and another five samples were alkali-treated in 5 M NaOH solution for 25 min at temperature 60°C followed by heat treatment at 600°C for 1 h. All samples were then immersed in Hank's solution for 7 days to assess the effect of surface modifications on the bioactivity of titanium alloy. The different treated surfaces and control one were characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Fourier transformation infra-red spectroscopy. Statistical analysis was performed with PASW Statistics 18.0® (Predictive Analytics Software). Results: Anodization of Ti-alloy samples (Group B) led to the formation of bioactive titanium oxide anatase phase and PO43− group on the surface. The alkali-heat treatment of titanium alloy samples (Group C) leads to the formation of bioactive titania hydrogel and supplied sodium ions. The reaction between the Ti sample and NaOH alkaline solution resulted in the formation of a layer of amorphous sodium titania on the Ti surface, and this layer can induce apatite deposition. Conclusions: The surface roughness and surface chemistry had an excellent ability to induce bioactivity of titanium alloy. The anodization in H3PO4produced anatase titanium oxide on the surface with phosphate originated from electrolytes changed the surface topography and allowed formation of calcium-phosphate.
  2,259 168 5
Vitamin D status and periodontal disease among pregnant and non-pregnant women in an underdeveloped district of Pakistan
Farhan R Khan, Tashfeen Ahmad, Rabia Hussain, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
May-June 2016, 6(3):234-239
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.183111  PMID:27382540
Aim: To compare pregnant and non-pregnant females for vitamin D level and periodontal status and to determine if there is any association between the periodontal health and hypovitaminosis D in pregnant women. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jhelum, Pakistan. Participants were pregnant females at ~ 12 weeks of gestation (n = 36) and non-pregnant (n = 35) females selected from the same locality. Periodontal parameters such as probing depth, bleeding on probing, and attachment loss were recorded. Serum samples were taken to measure blood indices and vitamin D levels. Chi-square test and Odds ratio were applied to determine the association between hypovitaminosis D and periodontal status. Results: Vitamin D deficiency was common in the pregnant group compared to non-pregnant (P < 0.001). Blood indices (hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume) were significantly lower among the pregnant compared to the non-pregnant group (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups for probing depth and attachment loss. Conclusions: Pregnant women were more deficient in Vitamin D than non-pregnant women. However, no association between low vitamin D levels and periodontal disease was seen in the studied population.
  1,987 230 4
CASE REPORT
Cancellous osteoma of maxilla: A rare case report
Priyanka Debta, FM Debta, Smita Bussari, Swati S Acharya, Vasanti A Jeergal
May-June 2016, 6(3):261-264
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.183105  PMID:27382545
Osteoma is a slow growing benign tumor result from either cancellous or compact bone proliferation. Osteoma of the jaws may arise from the surface of the bone as a sessile mass located either peripherally or endosteally. This paper presents a rare case report of peripheral cancellous osteoma, involving the buccal cortical plate and alveolar process of the right maxilla of a 37-year-old female patient.
  1,986 132 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Comparative evaluation of effect of complete denture wears on the flow rate of saliva in both medicated and apparently healthy patients
Abhay Sonthalia, Arun P Chandrasekaran, Sheetal P Mhaske, Mayank Lau, VR Joshy, George Attokaran
May-June 2016, 6(3):219-223
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.183103  PMID:27382537
Aim and Objectives: In the denture wearing people, saliva is necessary to create adhesion, cohesion, and surface tension that ultimately leads to the increased retention of the denture. Medications have some influence on the flow rate of saliva and denture retention. The present study evaluates the effect of complete denture wear on the flow rate of saliva in both medicated and apparently healthy patients. Materials and Methods: The participants were 42 edentulous individuals aged 35–70 years requiring complete denture prostheses. The participants were divided into two groups of medicated and unmedicated. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected at 24 h and 3 months after the insertion of new complete dentures in both the groups. The data obtained were analyzed using Student's paired t-test and unpaired t-test. Intergroup changes were compared with unpaired t-test. Intragroup changes were compared with paired t-test using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 22.0. Results: In the unmedicated group, the mean salivary flow rate was high at 24 h after denture insertion when compared to before denture insertion (P = 0.001 VHS). In the medicated group, the observation was highly significant (P = 0.007 HS) 24 h after denture insertion and after 3 months (P = 0.02 S) when compared to before denture insertion. Conclusion: No significant difference in the salivary flow rate was found 3 months after denture insertion when compared to before denture insertion for both the medicated and unmedicated groups.
  1,757 129 -
Evaluation of anticardiolipin antibodies in tobacco users and non-tobacco users with severe chronic periodontal disease
Pradeep K Yadalam, K Rajapandian, PL Ravishankar, Kalaivani Vartharajan, Srinath Subramaniam, Mithra Dinakar
May-June 2016, 6(3):256-260
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.183115  PMID:27382544
Aims: Many studies have proven that b2-glycoprotein-I-dependent anticardiolipin is elevated in periodontal diseases. Systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome, which are usually associated with high antiphospholipid antibodies, are more prone to adverse pregnancy outcomes and cardiovascular sequelae. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to evaluate IgG, IgM anticardiolipin antibodies in tobacco users and non-tobacco users with severe chronic periodontal disease. Materials and Methods: Based on the Armitage classification, 2000, 40 severe periodontitis (group D) (mean clinical attachment loss greater than 2.5 mm) male patients were selected for the study with the age range of 35–65 years and good general health from the Department of periodontics, SRM Kattankulathur Dental College, Chennai. They were classified as smokers (20 subjects) and non-smokers (20 subjects). Blood samples were collected and IgG, IgM antibodies were semi-quantitatively analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The data thus collected were statistically analyzed by independent student's t-test. Results: Results showed that smokers with severe periodontitis exhibited marked increase in anticardiolipin IgG, IgM compared to non-smokers. They showed a positive correlation and statistical significance (P < 0.0001) between mean clinical attachment loss and IgG and IgM values. Conclusions: Results showed a rise in anticardiolipin antibodies in smokers with severe periodontitis, which indicates that these patients are more prone to coronary heart disease.
  1,644 110 1
To evaluate the influence of smear layer with different instruments and obturation methods on microleakage of root canal filled teeth: In vitro study
Manoj S Likhitkar, Shantaram V Kulkarni, Aravind Burande, Vishal Solanke, C Sushil Kumar, Babasaheb Kamble
May-June 2016, 6(3):240-244
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.183110  PMID:27382541
Aims and Objectives: The success of root canal treatment depends on proper debridement, instrumentation, proper accessibility, and proper restoration. The presence of a smear layer is considered to be a significant factor. This in vitro study was conducted to assess the effect of the presence/absence of a smear layer on the microleakage of root canal filled teeth using different instruments and obturation methods. Materials and Methods: One hundred extracted mandibular premolars with closed apices and single roots were chosen and then divided into six groups, A to F, consisting of 15 teeth each. The control group included 10 teeth; 5 positive and 5 negative. The teeth were decoronated at the cementoenamel junction. Groups A, B, C, and D were instrumented with engine-driven rotary Protaper NiTi files. Groups E and F were instrumented with conventional stainless steel hand files. Groups A, C, and E were flushed with 3 ml of 17% EDTA to remove the smear layer prior to obturation. All teeth were flushed with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution and obturated with AH-Plus sealer with lateral condensation technique for Groups C, D, E, F and with thermoplasticized gutta-percha technique for Groups A and B. Using an electrochemical technique, leakages in the obturated canals were assessed for 45 days. The results were tabulated using Student's t-test (paired and unpaired t-test) with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Software Version 21 (IBM Company, New York, USA). Results: Group A showed the lowest mean value at intervals of 10, 20, 30, and 45 days. There was no current flow in the negative controls during the test period. There was leakage in the positive controls within a few minutes of immersion. Conclusion: The results showed that rotary instrumentation contributed toward an exceptional preparation of root canals compared to hand instrumentation. Elimination of the smear layer enhanced the resistance to microleakage; thermoplasticized gutta-percha obturation technique produced a better seal compared to the lateral condensation technique.
  1,534 123 -
Prevalence of palatal rugae shapes in Karnataka and Kerala population: A cross-sectional study
JK Savita, BN Yathindra Kumar, G Satish, KT Divya, J Ranjitha, Ravi Kumar Pujari
May-June 2016, 6(3):230-233
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.183113  PMID:27382539
Aims and Objectives: This study was conducted to assess the incidence and prevalence of palatal rugae shapes in the male and female populations of Karnataka and Kerala. Materials and Methods: This study consisted of 100 plaster models of each group, which were equally distributed between both the genders, with an age range of 17–23 years. The rugae patterns were recorded by using Thomas and Kotze classification. Correlation between the rugae shape and population as well as the rugae shape and gender were analyzed using chi-square analysis and discriminant function analysis using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version 22 (IBM Corp). Results: Curved, straight, and wavy rugae patterns were the most common in both Kerala and Karnataka sample populations. Chi-square analysis showed significant differences between the populations for the curved pattern; discriminant function analysis showed significant differences between the populations for the curved and straight patterns. Significant gender differences were found in the curved pattern for Karnataka population and in unification patterns for both populations by Chi-square/Fischer exact test. Conclusions: The curved and straight rugae patterns were significantly more frequent in the Kerala population compared to the Karnataka population. Because of the limited sample size of this study, further cross-sectional studies are suggested.
  1,543 88 -
Discontinued dental attendance among elderly people in Sweden
Ingela Grönbeck-Linden, Catharina Hägglin, Anita Petersson, Per O Linander, Lars Gahnberg
May-June 2016, 6(3):224-229
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.183101  PMID:27382538
Aim: Our objective was to study the loss of dental attendance and a possible age trend among patients aged ≥65 years in Sweden. Regular dental check-ups are considered to be an important factor in maintaining oral health. Approximately 80% of the adult population in Sweden are enrolled in a regular check-up system; however, dental practitioners often find that older patients attend fewer check-ups. Old people may naturally lose contact with dental services as they move to special housing or die. In this systematic study, these factors were investigated and used as exclusion criteria. Materials and Methods: Data were collected for all patients (n = 4759) aged 65 or older from the electronic journal system in 3 large public dental clinics in 3 communities. Their dental records for the years 2004–2009 were studied longitudinally by 1 person at each clinic; 1111 patients were excluded (patients died during study period, wanted emergency care only, obtained special dental care allowance, moved from the community or moved to special housing, or left the clinic for another caregiver). The statistical analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 21 (IBM). Results: Of the 3648 patients (1690 men and 1958 women) included in the study, 13% lost contact with their dental service over the course of the study (10% of those were aged 65–79 and 21% ≥80). The decrease in regular dental contact had a statistically significant association with increasing age (P < 0.001). Conclusion: A considerable number of older people living independently or with moderate supportive care in their own homes lost contact with dental service despite enrolment in a recall system.
  1,399 10 5
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