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   2018| May-June  | Volume 8 | Issue 3  
    Online since May 17, 2018

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Molar protraction using miniscrews (temporary anchorage device) with simultaneous correction of lateral crossbite: An orthodontic case report
Kavitha Odathurai Marusamy, Saravanan Ramasamy, Othman Wali
May-June 2018, 8(3):271-276
DOI:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_447_17  PMID:29911067
Early loss of permanent teeth, congenitally missing lateral incisors or second premolars, extremely displaced or impacted canines, all result in a reduced upper dentition. That leads to the development of crossbite in the maxillary dentition. Partial denture prosthesis, dental implants, and space closure by fixed orthodontics are the various means of treating the edentulous spaces. Protraction of molars is time taking and challenging. Temporary anchorage device (TAD) helps to protract molars without anchorage loss. This case report describes the orthodontic treatment of a 25-year-old female with lateral dental crossbite using posterior bite plane appliance with fixed orthodontic appliance. Missing upper second molar was protracted mesially to the first molar extraction space by TAD to avoid prosthetic replacement.
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Is silver diamine fluoride effective in preventing and arresting caries in elderly adults? A systematic review
Gireesh Kumar Subbiah, Nithin Manchery Gopinathan
May-June 2018, 8(3):191-199
DOI:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_99_18  PMID:29911054
Aim: Silver diamine fluoride (SDF) has invoked interest in recent times due to its remineralization capacity and non-invasive application procedure. The aim of this systematic review was to report the findings concerning the effectiveness of SDF in managing caries in the elderly adults. Materials and Methods: A systematic search of publications was conducted using four databases: PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, and CENTRAL. The key MeSH term combinations used were (silver diamine fluoride) AND (caries) AND (elderly). Results: The review found only three well-conducted randomized controlled trials evaluating the effectiveness of SDF on root caries in community-dwelling elders. None of the studies addressed coronal caries. The effectiveness improved when combined with structured oral health education. Conclusion: The available limited evidence on SDF shows that it is effective in arresting and preventing root caries in the elderly. More high-quality studies need to be done to verify the effectiveness on coronal caries and long-term effects of SDF in the elderly with varying levels of dependency.
  2,110 423 -
The evaluation and clinical efficiency of PowerScope: An original research
Tony Antony, Vivek Amin, Shourya Hegde, Shreya Hegde, Deepa Shetty, Mohammadi Begum Khan
May-June 2018, 8(3):264-270
DOI:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_48_18  PMID:29911066
Aims and Objectives: Managing mild-to-moderate Class II malocclusion is one of the common and major challenges to orthodontists. Class II discrepancies with mandibular deficiency during active growth are usually treated using myofunctional appliances. Fixed functional appliances evolved due to the noncompliance with conventional myofunctional appliances. One of the latest Class II correctors is the PowerScope appliance. The purpose of this study was to determine the amount, time, and rate of molar correction and efficacy of PowerScope. Materials and Methods: A total of 10 participants, between 15 and 19 years' age group (mean = 16.8 years; 5 males and 5 females), requiring treatment of Class II malocclusion were considered for this study. All routine records were made. After initial leveling and alignment, lateral cephalogram was taken in standardized natural head position using Planmeca ProMax unit. Later, PowerScope was installed and a patient was monitored every month for further adjustment and reactivation. On achieving Class I molar relation, skeletal, dental, and soft-tissue linear and angular parameters were measured using Dolphin Imaging Software. Amount, rate, and total treatment time for molar correction were measured. Molar correction was calculated by taking S vertical as reference plane. The obtained values were statistically analyzed using paired t-test. Results: There were statistically significant changes seen in dentoalveolar parameters such as lower incisor proclination, mandibular molar advancement, and reduction in both overjet and overbite. In skeletal parameters, due to the anterior positioning of the mandible, sagittal parameters showed statistically significant changes. In the soft tissue, a significant improvement in facial profile was seen, due to the anterior movement of soft-tissue pogonion. Conclusion: The results of this study have shown that statistically significant differences were found in dentoalveolar, soft-tissue, and skeletal parameters.
  2,195 224 -
Antifungal efficacy and the mechanical properties of soft liners against Candida albicans after the incorporation of garlic and neem: An In vitro study
Seenivasan Madhan Kumar, V Anand Kumar, Parathasarthy Natarajan, Gayathri Sreenivasan
May-June 2018, 8(3):212-217
DOI:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_343_17  PMID:29911057
Objectives: To evaluate the in vitro growth inhibition of Candida albicans, in the soft-liner material and Shore A hardness from resin-based denture soft lining materials modified by neem or garlic incorporation. Materials and Methods: Resin discs were prepared with poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) and soft liners incorporated with varying concentrations of neem or garlic. For antifungal activity, resin discs were placed on agar plates inoculated with C. albicans and were evaluated after 2, 4, and 7 days using the streaking method. The hardness of the PMMA was evaluated with the use of Shore A at 2, 4, and 7 days. Data were statistically processed by SPSS software (IBM Company, Chicago, USA) using Kruskal–Wallis test, and post hoc comparisons were done using Dunn's test. P <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Neem and garlic added to PMMA soft liner had an inhibitory effect on C. albicans. Both the neem and garlic when added showed positive results against C. albicans when compared to the control group. The soft liner hardness increased statistically by time but not for the different plant extract concentrations. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it was found that neem and garlic can be used as an additive to tissue conditioner to reduce the adherence of C. albicans without significantly affecting the hardness of the heat-polymerized acrylic resin.
  1,554 181 1
Prevalence of soft-tissue lesions among women in sex work in the red light area of Pune, India: A cross-sectional survey
Shrikanth Muralidharan, Arunkumar Acharya, Tejaswi Sevekari, Sanaa Wadwan, Noopur Rajiv Joglekar, Shanthi Margabandhu
May-June 2018, 8(3):218-223
DOI:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_46_18  PMID:29911058
Aim and Objective: The women in sex work have no felt need for oral health and much of the stress has always been on sexually transmitted infections (STIs). There is a need for a baseline data for the oral lesions of these women to further assist in the policy formulations and training of personnel for the identification of the oral conditions which need treatment. The aim of the study was to evaluate the presence of oral lesions among female sex workers in the red light area of Pune, India. Materials and Methods: The Community Periodontal Index and loss of attachment (LA) index was recorded along with the other soft-tissue lesions as per the WHO Oral Health Assessment from 1997. The calculated sample was 350. Systematic sampling technique was followed. The data collected were subjected to statistical analysis and analysis was done using SPSS package 16.0. Results: A total of 110 (31.4%) women had leukoplakia, 6 women (1.7%) had ulceration, 41 (11.7%) women had candidiasis, and 1 woman (0.3%) had swollen gingiva. As the age increased, there was an increase in the number of pockets. The percentage of women above 60 years had higher LA. Conclusion: The women in sex work are mainly spoken to about HIV and STIs. With almost all of these women requiring some or the other form of treatment, utilization of the available dental workforce with both government and public partnership could be the route.
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Knowledge and practices related to Hepatitis B infection among dental and oral hygiene students at a university in Pretoria
Thomas Khomotjo Madiba, Ntombizodwa Rosemary Nkambule, Tsholofelo Kungoane, Ahmed Bhayat
May-June 2018, 8(3):200-204
DOI:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_31_18  PMID:29911055
Aims and Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine the knowledge and practices of dental and oral hygiene (OH) students related to the transmission and prevention of the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Methods: A cross-sectional analytical design was used and all dental and OH students registered at a university in Pretoria in 2017 were asked to participate. Students were classified as either clinical (senior students who were treating patients) or nonclinical (junior students who had not yet started treating patients) depending on their year of study. A pretested, self-administered questionnaire consisting of 16 closed-ended and 4 open-ended questions relating to the students' knowledge and practice concerning HBV infection was used. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 23. All data were confidential and anonymity was ensured. Results: A total of 292 (78%) students agreed to participate, and of these, 70% were female. The average age was 21.78 years (±2.7) and almost two-thirds (61%) were classified as clinical students. A significant number of nonclinical students reported that the HBV could be transmitted through saliva (P < 0.01), through shaking hands (P < 0.01) and from sharing a toothbrush (P = 0.02) with an infected person. Clinical students correctly reported that HBV could be spread during the birth process from mother to child (P = 0.03). A significant number of nonclinical students stated that they would use antibiotics to prevent the spread of HBV infection (P < 0.01). The majority of respondents (94%) stated that vaccinations should be taken to prevent infection with HBV and >90% of students reported having completed the vaccination schedule. Conclusion: Although both the knowledge on the virus and the modes of transmission were very good, more than half did not know that HBV infection can be transmitted through piercing and more than half of the nonclinical students wrongly reported that antibiotics can be used to prevent infection after exposure. The vast majority were vaccinated against HBV.
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Salivary and serum aspartate aminotransferases and alanine aminotransferases in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and normal children: A comparative study
KS Vinod, Lal P Madathil, Pushparaja Shetty, Harsimran Kaur, Mimansha Patel, Abhishek Gouraha
May-June 2018, 8(3):229-234
DOI:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_60_18  PMID:29911060
Aims and Objectives: The aim of the study was to estimate and compare aspartate aminotransferases (AST) and alanine aminotransferases (ALT) levels in saliva and serum of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and normal children, and the objective was to evaluate the significance of these enzymes in assessing the salivary gland injury in IDDM children. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of thirty children clinically and biochemically diagnosed for IDDM and thirty healthy children of similar age in the control group. Saliva and serum samples were collected and enzyme assay was performed by optimized ultraviolet test method (according to International Federation of Clinical Chemistry). The values obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using Mann–Whitney U-test for comparison of the variables and Karl–Pearson's coefficient test for correlation. The SPSS 16.0, (SPSS Inc., Chicago, USA) was used for statistical analysis. Results: Higher values of AST (mean = saliva 91.60 IU/L) and ALT (mean = saliva 94.93 IU/L) were found in the saliva than in serum (AST serum = 15.83 IU/L) (ALT serum = 20.80 IU/L) among the patients and the differences were statistically highly significant (P = 0.001). A similar comparison in the control group did not show statistical significant difference (saliva – AST mean = 23.50 IU/L, ALT mean = 21.95 IU/L and serum – AST mean = 12.60 IU/L, ALT mean = 13.25 IU/L). On correlation between patient and normal group, greater values of AST and ALT were observed in saliva of patients and the difference was statistically highly significant ([AST-mean = patients 91.166 IU/L and controls = 23.500 IU/L] [ALT-mean = patients 94.933 IU/L and controls 21.950 IU/L]). The serum values of patients and controls did not show statistical difference. Although higher values of salivary ALT and AST were observed in patients with the disease for 0–5-year clinical duration (ALT mean = 100.21 IU/L and AST mean = 95.39 IU/L) than those with the disease for 6–10-year duration (ALT mean = 77.57 IU/L and AST mean = 77.28 IU/L), values were statistically nonsignificant. Conclusion: Elevated salivary AST and ALT levels in IDDM patients suggest the injury to salivary glands and could aid as a salivary marker for the involvement of salivary glands in IDDM.
  1,115 109 1
Evaluation of satisfaction perceived by prosthetic patients compared to clinical and technical variables
Ettore Epifania, Roberto Sanzullo, Roberto Sorrentino, Pietro Ausiello
May-June 2018, 8(3):252-258
DOI:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_27_18  PMID:29911064
Objectives: The purpose of this study is to relate the clinical quality of the complete denture and specific anamnestic factors to the level of satisfaction perceived by patients. Also identifying possible prognostic parameters that could be predictive of future satisfaction. Materials and Methods: On the basis of a substantial existing literature, the most appropriate parameters to determine the prosthetic quality have been determined to evaluate the satisfaction perceived by patients about their denture; a completely new questionnaire has been drawn up. Ninety-eight patients have been included in the research, they have undergone a clinical examination, and they have filled out the questionnaire anonymously. The ANOVA test and Pearson correlation test have been employed to relate clinical and anamnestic factors to the overall satisfaction score. Results: The average level of patients' satisfaction was between “quite satisfied” and “very satisfied.” There is no significant variability of satisfaction related to the type of prosthesis. The ANOVA test did not verify relationships between the overall satisfaction score and the anamnestic data examined. Pearson linear correlation coefficient between the overall prosthetic quality and the general satisfaction perceived by patients is 0.493 (P < 0.01). Extension of the prosthetic body (r = 0.478; P < 0.01) and retention (r = 0305; P < 0.05) are in correlation with the overall patients' satisfaction. Conclusion: there is a moderately strong relationship between the overall prosthetic quality and the general satisfaction perceived by patients. Particularly, the retention and the adequate extension of the prosthetic body appear to be factors that are most associated with satisfaction. Instead, the anamnestic factors are not related to overall satisfaction score.
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Prevalence and distribution of radix paramolaris in the mandibular first and second molars of an Iranian Population
Maryam Kuzekanani, Reza Najafipour
May-June 2018, 8(3):240-244
DOI:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_58_18  PMID:29911062
Objectives: Inability to find supernumerary roots is one of the most important reasons for root canal therapy failures in molar teeth. This research aimed to determine the incidence and distribution of radix paramolaris in permanent mandibular molars of the population of Kerman. Iran over 2016–2017. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on a collection of 500 extracted permanent mandibular first and second molars selected by random from different dental centers in Kerman without recording the sex and age of the patients as inclusion criteria. The incidence of additional mesiobuccal root (radix paramolaris), the average root length and morphology of this root was carefully determined following the Calberson and Alexanderson classification pattern. Results: The incidence of radix paramolaris was 1.2% in mandibular first molars (0.8% Type A and 0.4% Type B) and 0.8% in mandibular second molars (0.4% Type A and 0.4% Type B) of this population. Fischer's Exact test showed that the difference in frequency of the radix paramolaris between first and second mandibular molars of this population was not statistically significant (two-sided P = 0.0001). The average length for radix paramolaris was 13.05 mms in mandibular first and second molars in this study. Conclusion: Radix paramolaris was found more frequently in mandibular first molars than in mandibular second molars in this sample of 500 mandibular molars. The rate of 1.2% in first molars seems to be higher than reported rates in European or Caucasian populations where the prevalence is typically <0.5%.
  1,107 98 -
Comparison between growth patterns and pharyngeal widths in different skeletal malocclusions in South Indian population
K Bhagya Lakshmi, Sri Harsha Yelchuru, V Chandrika, OG Lakshmikar, V Lakshmi Sagar, G Vivek Reddy
May-June 2018, 8(3):224-228
DOI:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_77_18  PMID:29911059
Aim: The main aim is to determine whether growth pattern had an effect on the upper airway by comparing different craniofacial patterns with pharyngeal widths and its importance during the clinical examination. Methodology: Sixty lateral cephalograms of patients aged between 16 and 24 years with no pharyngeal pathology or nasal obstruction were selected for the study. These were divided into skeletal Class I (n = 30) and skeletal Class II (n = 30) using ANB angle subdivided into normodivergent, hyperdivergent, and hypodivergent facial patterns based on SN-GoGn angle. McNamara's airway analysis was used to determine the upper- and lower-airway dimensions. One-way ANOVA was used to do the intergroup comparisons and the Tukey's test as the secondary statistical analysis. Results: Statistically significant difference exists between the upper-airway dimensions in both the skeletal malocclusions with hyperdivergent growth patterns when compared to other growth patterns. Conclusion: In both the skeletal malocclusions, vertical growers showed a significant decrease in the airway size than the horizontal and normal growers. There is no statistical significance between the lower airway and craniofacial growth pattern.
  1,077 121 -
Canal straightening following overinstrumentation with three nickel-titanium rotary instruments
Salwa Yammine, Edgard Jabbour, Franck Diemer, Zeina Majzoub
May-June 2018, 8(3):245-251
DOI:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_18_18  PMID:29911063
Aim: The aim of the present in vitro study to compare canal straightening following shaping of curved canals with three types of new generation nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary instruments-ProTaper Next (PTN)®, BT RaCe (BTR)®, and WaveOne Gold (WOG)®- and three different levels of protrusion beyond the major apical foramen. Materials and Methods: Forty-five extracted human maxillary and mandibular molars with at least one curved canal were distributed in three comparable groups of 15 canals each. The canals were instrumented to the major foramen and then overinstrumented with the final file 0.5 mm, 1 mm, and 1.5 mm beyond the foramen using PTN (Group PTN = 15), BTR (Group BTR = 15), and WOG (Group WOG = 15). Standardized pre- and post-instrumentation radiographs of the root canal were obtained for all groups using digital intraoral radiographs coupled with software. Differences in the degree of curvature were regarded as straightening and canal curvature was evaluated based on Schneider technique using the AmScope software for measurements and compared between groups and levels of instrumentation applying Mixed-model ANOVA. Significance was set at 0.05. Results: Canal curvature tended to gradually straighten out as the level of instrumentation increased in all three groups without statistically significant difference among the groups (P = 0.826). Conclusion: Overinstrumentation in curved canals resulted in straightening of the canal curvature.
  1,041 95 -
The Public Dental Service in Sweden: An interview study of Chief Dental Officers
Raimo Palvarinne, Dowen Birkhed, Eeva Widström
May-June 2018, 8(3):205-211
DOI:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_95_18  PMID:29911056
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate how the Public Dental Service (PDS) in Sweden has managed to maintain a market position at a time of change in political ideologies and increased competition from a growing private sector. Materials and Methods: All Chief Dental Officers (CDOs), who had held this leading position for at least 5 years (n = 22), were asked to participate in a semi-structured telephone interview. Sixteen of the 22 CDOs participated in this study. The questions were sent by mail in 2014 before the telephone interviews, which were audiotaped, transcribed and analyzed using a qualitative analytical approach. Since this was a quality study with just few participants, no statistical analysis was carried out. Results: All the CDOs answered that they had influenced outcomes through brand building and core value work, related to both patients and employees, and to a lesser extent through competitor analysis. Some CDOs had a slightly different approach to the way they described visions, strategies and short-term goals. They used more business-oriented concepts, such as customers, market shares, and profits. Most CDOs regarded their actions as important for the successful development of their organization. Conclusions: The PDS appears to have a stable, strong position in the Swedish dental care market, and a great deal of effort has been put into consolidating this position.
  975 157 1
Three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography assessment of additional canals of permanent first molars: A Pinocchio for successful root canal treatment
Rayan Alswilem, Anas Abouonq, Azhar Iqbal, Sarah Sulaiman Alajlan, Mohammad Khursheed Alam
May-June 2018, 8(3):259-263
DOI:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_3_18  PMID:29911065
Aims and Objectives: The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of additional canals in the first permanent molars of the participants of Saudi, Jordanian, and Egyptian population using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, CBCT scans of 139 patients were collected who were implant treated at College of Dentistry, Al Jouf University, Saudi Arabia, from October 2016 to March 2017. The images were analyzed using On-Demand 3D software. A pilot study was done to prevent intra-examiner error, and two calibrated examiners independently assessed 20% randomly selected CBCT images. Gender and racial disparities were analyzed using Chi-square test. P <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The prevalence of additional canal in U16, U26, L36, and L46 of Saudi population was 41.80%, 41.80%, 17.30%, and 19.10%, respectively. In Jordanian participants, no additional canals were found in both mandibular first molars whereas only one participant from Egypt had additional canal in both mandibular first molars. Moreover, significant associations were found between L36 (P = 0.015) and L46 (P = 0.008) with gender. Conclusion: In conclusion, the results of this study provide the information about the prevalence of additional canal in the first permanent molars, which will help and guide the clinicians while performing root canal treatment and also may help them increase the success rate of root canal treatment of the first permanent molars.
  996 102 1
Orthodontic treatment need in higher primary schoolchildren of Central Bengaluru, India
Jyothi Shashidhar, Shashidhar Chandrashekhar
May-June 2018, 8(3):235-239
DOI:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_438_17  PMID:29911061
Aims and Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the orthodontic treatment need in 11–14-year-old schoolchildren of Central Bengaluru, India, using the index of orthodontic treatment need (IOTN) and to analyze the treatment needs between males and females and correlation between the esthetic to aesthetic (AC) and dental health component (DHC) of IOTN. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised 500 schoolchildren (187 females and 313 males) who had not undergone orthodontic treatment. No radiographs, study casts, were used; IOTN was calculated from clinical examination and photographs. The data were analyzed using SPSS 20 IBM version. Results: The results for DHC were as follows: 12% students in no need, 52.5% students in little need, 20.5% students in moderate or borderline, 11.5% students in severe need, and 3.5% students were in the category of very severe need for treatment. On evaluating AC components, 91.6% were in the category of no or little need, 2% students in moderate need, and 6.4% in great need category. Mild positive correlation (r = 0.153) between DHC and AC of IOTN was observed. The difference between the IOTN values of boys and girls was not statistically significant. Conclusions: More than 50% of the population in our study showed little/no need category which undergoes undiagnosed and may not seek dental treatment at right time to prevent the future complications. This study provides baseline data on the need and demand for orthodontic treatment among the sample which is important for planning public orthodontic and dental services.
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Assessment of oral health-related quality of life for complex mandibular defects rehabilitated with computer-guided implant restoration
Parithimar Kalaignan, Jaya Shree Mohan, Arun Jayakumar
May-June 2018, 8(3):277-281
DOI:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_74_18  PMID:29911068
The individuals who have been afflicted with mandibular defects involving soft and hard tissue loss are subjected to functional, psychological and social consequences. Rehabilitation is of prime importance in restoring self confidence and improving the quality of life. Complex mandibular defects can be successfully rehabilitated with the three dimensional (3D) computerized diagnostic technique (Simplant-Dentsply sirona implant). one of the important tools for measuring the oral health status by scale knows as oral health impact profile (OHIP). OHIP is a scale particularly designed to measure the quality of life and its influence pertaining to functional and psychological aspects. This report describes the prosthetic rehabilitation posttraumatic mandibular defect with 3D SimPlant software and stereolithography. With the application of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing technology, guided implant prosthesis could definitely improve masticatory performance and esthetics, thereby enhancing oral health-related quality of life.
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