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   2019| March-April  | Volume 9 | Issue 2  
    Online since April 12, 2019

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Botulinum toxin application in facial esthetics and recent treatment indications (2013-2018)
Vivekanand Kattimani, Rahul Vinay Chandra Tiwari, Khalid Gufran, Bharti Wasan, PH Shilpa, Anas Abdul Khader
March-April 2019, 9(2):99-105
DOI:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_430_18  PMID:31058058
Background: Ever-changing perception of beauty from childhood to old age is changing with the revolution in cosmeceuticals science. Esthetics is an individual's perception since time immemorial. Standards of beauty have changed through centuries with increased awareness about esthetics. The face remains main source of information for identification and discrimination. It constitutes a structural ground for many nonverbal messages including the emotional state of a person, so the proverb “Face is an index of mind” holds good. The wrinkles and laxity are considered to be one of the factors for aging. Hence, escalating demand for cosmetic treatment to reduce facial wrinkles and laxity has stimulated us to search for published literature for nonsurgical techniques for enhancement of facial beauty. The review analyzed the published data to provide narrative basic review in a concise way to the beginners, clinicians, and students. Materials and Methods: We have adopted search criteria using keywords: Botox, Botulinum toxin, incobotulinumtoxinA, esthetics, face, uses of Botox, with various Boolean operators and or in title, and abstract using PubMed search engine. The database search limited to PubMed only from January 2013 to June 2018. Results: Various search results have been appended as annexures at the end of the article for further reference for the readers. Finally, 17 references were selected to write narrative review to meet our objectives. Conclusion: The advancing front in the use of toxins is an emerging science for the beautification of a face. Botox exploded in to market because of efficacy, tolerability, and minimally invasive nature. The present review gives brief about the history of Botulinum toxin, types, mechanism of action, clinical indications, preparations, storage, and technique for various uses with a brief note on patient selection, contraindications, and complications.
  2,588 377 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Single versus multiple sitting endodontic treatment: Incidence of postoperative pain – A randomized controlled trial
Moayad Ahmed A. Alomaym, Mohammed Fahad Mohammed Aldohan, Mohammad Jafnan Alharbi, Nafea Awadh Alharbi
March-April 2019, 9(2):172-177
DOI:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_327_18  PMID:31058068
Aims and Objectives: The aim of the study is to assess any considerable differences in the incidence and severity of postobturation pain after single- and multiple-visit root canal treatment. Materials and Methods: We carried our study on 400 successive patients who needed root canal treatment. They were randomly categorized into two groups of 200 each. First group underwent single-visit treatment and the other group underwent multiple-visit therapy. Visual analog scale was employed to evaluate pain preoperatively and postoperatively at 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after obturation. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20 was employed for analysis. Results: There was a male predominance (235; 60.26%). Of 390 cases, 167 were vital and 223 were nonvital. There was an insignificant difference between the preoperative and postoperative pain levels of vital and nonvital teeth of both the groups at different time intervals. Conclusion: There was a less incidence of pain in multiple visit group than single-visit one, which was statistically significant.
  2,457 210 -
The efficacy of different sealant modalities for prevention of pits and fissures caries: A randomized clinical trial
Wahdan Mohammed Abdelghany Elkwatehy, Omair Mohammed Bukhari
March-April 2019, 9(2):119-128
DOI:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_80_18  PMID:31058061
Objectives: This clinical trial evaluates the efficacy of different pit and fissure sealant modalities as a caries prevention tool. Materials and Methods: Forty-four children aged 6–8 years with completely erupted first permanent molars participated in sealant placement randomized clinical trial. Split-mouth technique used and each child received four treatment modalities (ICON, Seal It, GCP glass seal, ICON/Seal It combination). Caries progression and sealant retention monitored over a period of 24 months. Results: Seal It and combination modalities had the highest efficacy in the prevention of pits and fissures caries, whereas the ICON had the lowest efficacy. Regarding retention, there were no significant differences among the four modalities during the 1, 3, and 6 months follow-up intervals. However, at 12, 18, and 24 months, the retention of Seal It and combination modalities were better than ICON and better than GCP, but the differences were not statistically significant. In addition, the retention of combination modality was better than Seal It, but the difference was not significant. At the end of the trial, the caries incidence was the highest in ICON group (20 lesions) followed by GCP group (13 lesions), Seal It group (3 lesions) and the lowest observed in combination group (2 lesions). Conclusions: Both Seal It and combination modalities are highly effective in the prevention of pits and fissures caries, GCP has acceptable effect while the use of ICON alone was not effective. The Seal It and ICON combination improves their clinical efficacy in caries prevention.
  1,542 272 -
Evaluation of odontogenic maxillary sinusitis with cone beam computed tomography: A retrospective study with review of literature
Atul Anand Bajoria, Shromona Sarkar, Pallawi Sinha
March-April 2019, 9(2):194-204
DOI:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_435_18  PMID:31058071
Aim and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to describe the radiographic characteristics of odontogenic maxillary sinusitis as seen on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans and determine whether any tooth or any tooth root, was more frequently associated with this disease. Materials and Methods: The present study included 500 CBCT images that included the entire maxillary sinus of both the sides in all the three planes. The modified classification of Abrahams and Glassberg was used to assess maxillary sinusitis of odontogenic origin. Furthermore, the proximity of the tooth root to the sinus floor, periapical pathology, and the septae within the maxillary sinus were also assessed. Results: In the present study, 1000 hemimaxillas were analyzed. Majority of the cases (74.9%) the apex of either tooth was touching the floor of the sinus. While 16.9% were in close relationship to the sinus while 8.2% of the cases, the apices were present within the sinus. Furthermore, in the present study, 38 of the total cases had an odontogenic cause of maxillary sinusitis, whereas 273 of them had a nonodontogenic cause, 96 have an undetermined cause, and the rest 593 cases had healthy sinus. Conclusion: The incidence of odontogenic sinusitis is likely under-reported in the available literature. The introduction of low-dose CBCT is particularly useful to establish a definitive diagnosis to augment in the treatment of chronic maxillary sinusitis of odontogenic origin.
  1,478 199 1
Stereomicroscopic evaluation of marginal fit of E.Max press and E.Max computer-aided design and computer-assisted manufacturing lithium disilicate ceramic crowns: An in vitro study
Afra Hassan Elrashid, Amjad Hamod AlKahtani, Shatha Jarallah Alqahtani, Nouf Bati Alajmi, Fatimah Hussain Alsultan
March-April 2019, 9(2):178-184
DOI:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_18_19  PMID:31058069
Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the marginal gap of E-max press, and E.max computer-aided design and computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD-CAM) lithium disilicate (LD) ceramic crowns fabricated by using conventional technique and CAD-CAM technique. Materials and Methods: This was an in vitro experimental study carried out in Riyadh Elm University and King Saud University. A marginal gap of 30 LD crowns was evaluated by Stereomicroscopy. A total of 15 pressable LD (IPS E.max Press [Ivoclar Vivadent]) ceramic crowns were fabricated by using conventional lost wax pattern method (Group A). Digital impressions of the prepared dies were scanned and transferred to the milling machine. IPS E.max CAD (IPS E-max, Ivoclar, Amherst, NY, USA) LD blocks in shade Vita A2 were then milled by using DWX-50 machine for CAD-CAM crowns (Group B). Descriptive statistics of mean and standard error of marginal gaps for both groups were recorded and compared by applying Mann–Whitney U-test. All the data were analyzed by using statistical analysis software SPSS version 21.0 (Armonk, NY, USA: IBM Corp). Results: The LD crowns prepared by CAD-CAM technology (26.80 ± 3.4 μm) had significantly lower (P < 0.001) marginal gap than the LD pressed crowns (38.8 ± 2.3 μm) fabricated by conventional technique. The marginal gaps between CAD-CAM versus conventional groups exhibited significant differences at (42.68 μm vs. 52.46 μm, U = 51.500, P = 0.011), Mesiobuccal (15.94 μm vs. 30.13 μm, U = 45.500, P = 0.005), distolingual (26.70 μm vs. 43.86 μm, U = 63.500, P = 0.042), and distal (12.38 μm vs 31.45 μm, U = 47.500, P = 0.006). Conclusions: Within the limitations of the study, it can be concluded that LD all ceramic crowns fabricated by using CAD-CAM techniques showed lesser marginal gap and better marginal fit compared to the conventional technique.
  1,253 177 -
Adaptation of single-cone gutta-percha in curved canals prepared and obturated with protaper and heroshaper systems by using cone beam computed tomography
Yuvika Ahluwalia, Utsav Sharma, Neeraj Kumar, Azhar Malik, Anshdeep Singh, Amit Narayan
March-April 2019, 9(2):185-193
DOI:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_398_18  PMID:31058070
Objective: The aim of this study is to prepare and obturate the curved canals of the mesiobuccal root of maxillary first molar with four different file systems that is protaper hand files, rotary pro taper (RP) files, heroshaper hand files, and rotary hero shapers files and to evaluate the adaptation of their single-cone Gutta-percha by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods: Eighty teeth were selected and were divided into two groups (G1A1, G1A2 and G2A1, G2A2 as hand and RP file system, G1A3, G1A4 and G2A3, G2A4 as hand and rotary hero shaper files system) of fourth teeth each. After access opening working length of the mesiobuccal canal was established. The distobuccal and palatal roots of the samples were removed using the diamond disc at the furcation level. “Endoanalyser” software was used to measure Schneider's angle on the preoperative radiograph. This angle was measured by drawing two lines-one parallel to the long axis of the canal, in the coronal third, and the second line from the apical foramen to intersect the point where the first line left the long axis of the canal. The canals of each group were then prepared according to the manufacturer's instructions for protaper hand files, RP files, heroshaper hand files, and rotary hero shapers files systems. Direct digital radiography image of all the samples was obtained. And then, the samples were exposed to CBCT to evaluate their single-cone adaptations. The data were analyzed using SPSS 20, IBM, Armonk, NY, United States of America. Results: The null hypothesis that there will not be any gap area in the adaptation of their single-cone of different file system was rejected. Minimal gap area was seen in rotary hero shapers file system (0.001 mm2) and was maximum in hand protaper (HP) file system (0.015 mm2). Conclusion: CBCT is a useful tool in detecting the gap area after obturation in curved canals. The HP single-cone adaptation showed the maximum gap area and rotary heroshaper single-cone adaptation showed the minimum gap area.
  1,254 150 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
The impact of sibling behavior on oral health: A narrative review
Sunaina Puri, Ramprasad Vasthare, Ravindra Munoli
March-April 2019, 9(2):106-111
DOI:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_349_18  PMID:31058059
Objective: The repetition of any behavior until it becomes a learned behavior begins in childhood. Oral health practices being no exception to this, are also acquired at this tender age, and have the potential of greatly affecting one in their lives. Oral health behaviors are learned through a multifactorial interplay, of which the family is a crucial and relatively unexplored area and will be highlighted in this review. This review discusses gender differences among siblings in relation to oral health, familial influence on acquisition and maintenance of oral hygiene habits, media influence on oral health attitudes and more. Methods: A thorough literature search between 1972 and 2017 was done using Scopus, PubMed, and Google Scholar databases, results reviewed, prioritized, and findings compiled. The keywords of the search strategy was as below: Siblings, sibling behavior, sibling oral health, siblings in dentistry, maternal oral health, family influence on oral health. 35 studies were evaluated for the review. The keywords were limited to activities of siblings and their behavior patterns in relation to dentistry and oral health. Results: Results showed that sibling dynamics have been involved in influencing the learning of oral health behaviors in children. Other factors include peer pressure and maternal influences. Conclusion: Sibling relationships play a vital role in shaping behavior characteristics including tooth brushing, oral hygiene, dental perceptions, and snacking behaviors which are pertinent to dentistry.
  1,195 200 -
Critical appraisal of bidirectional relationship between periodontitis and hyperlipidemia
Seba Abraham, Arya Premnath, PR Arunima, Reejamol Mohammed Kassim
March-April 2019, 9(2):112-118
DOI:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_316_18  PMID:31058060
Periodontal disease and hyperlipidemia are both multifactorial disease with a high prevalence Worldwide. Cross-sectional and longitudinal prospective clinical studies show some evidence for a bidirectional relationship. Periodontitis and hyperlipidemia share some common risk factors and there exist a mechanistic link between both. Studies have found a positive response to periodontal therapy among hyperlipidemic patients, and statin use by hyperlipidemic patients has shown to influence the periodontal health. However, in spite of the rising prevalence of both diseases, many people remain unaware of their association with each other. Hence, this article summarizes the cyclic relationship between periodontal disease and hyperlipidemia.
  1,114 195 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Comparative evaluation of the effect of chemical disinfectants and ultraviolet disinfection on dimensional stability of the polyvinyl siloxane impressions
Sharayu Vinod Nimonkar, Vikram M Belkhode, SR Godbole, Pranali Vinod Nimonkar, Trupti Dahane, Seema Sathe
March-April 2019, 9(2):152-158
DOI:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_406_18  PMID:31058065
Context: Infection control is an important concept in the present day practice of dentistry. Disinfection of dental impressions is part of the daily routine in a dental clinics. After disinfection, it is important that impressions remain dimensionally stable. Aim: The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of chemical disinfectants and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection on the dimensional stability of the polyvinyl siloxane impressions. Objectives: The objective of the study is (1) To evaluate the effect of chemical disinfectant (2% glutaraldehyde and 1% sodium hypochlorite) and UV disinfectant on the dimensional stability of polyvinyl siloxane impression material. (2) Comparative evaluation of the dimensional discrepancy between the cast poured from the polyvinyl impressions material, that is subjected to chemical disinfectant and UV disinfectant to that of cast poured from impressions that were nondisinfected. Materials and Methods: A customized tray was fabricated to make impressions. Impressions were divided into four groups, 10 samples were disinfected with 2% glutaraldehyde for 20 min, 10 samples were disinfected with 1% sodium hypochlorite for 20 min, 10 samples were disinfected with UV light for 20 min, and 10 samples were not subjected to disinfection which served as control group. All the samples were poured after 30 min in die stone. Measurements were recorded using traveling microscope of 0.001 accuracy. Statistical analysis used in this study was the one-way ANOVA test. Results: The result showed significant dimensional changes in samples disinfected with 2% glutaraldehyde and 1% sodium hypochlorite, whereas samples disinfected with UV disinfectant unit showed no significant dimensional changes when compared with control group samples. Within the chemical groups, impressions disinfected with 1% sodium hypochlorite showed more discrepancy in the dimensions when compared to the 2% glutaraldehyde disinfected group. Conclusions: UV light disinfectant can be safely used to disinfect impressions as compared to chemical disinfectants in clinical prosthodontic procedures.
  1,160 142 3
Comparison of the effect for fracture resistance of different coronally extended post length with two different post materials
Niharika Singh Chauhan, Nidhi Saraswat, Ankita Parashar, Kuldeep Singh Sandu, Kapil Jhajharia, Nirav Rabadiya
March-April 2019, 9(2):144-151
DOI:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_334_18  PMID:31058064
Aims and Objectives: To compare the effect for fracture resistance of different coronally extended post length with two different post materials. Materials and Methods: One hundred and sixty endodontically treated maxillary central incisors embedded in acrylic resin with decoronated root portion were taken for the study. The postspaces were prepared according to standard protocol. The samples were divided into two groups according to the post material: glass-fiber post and Quartz fiber post. These groups were further subdivided on the basis of coronal extension of 4 and 6 mm for glass fiber and Quartz fiber posts, respectively. The posts were then luted with dual-polymerizing resin cement followed by core buildup. Samples were subjected to increasing compressive oblique load until fracture occurred in a universal testing machine. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and independent Student's t-test. Analysis was done using SPSS version 15 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) Windows software program. Results: Glass fiber post with coronal extension of 4 mm (182.8 N) showed better results than with 6-mm length (124.1 N). Similarly, in quartz fiber posts group, 4-mm postlength (314 N) was better when compared with 6 mm (160 N). The 4-mm coronal extension of quartz fiber post displayed superior fracture resistance. Conclusions: Glass fiber posts showed better fracture resistance than Quartz fiber posts. 4-mm coronal length showed more fracture resistance than 6 mm.
  1,018 115 1
A cephalometric evaluation of sexual dimorphism of the angle sella-nasion-frankfort horizontal plane in different sagittal classes of malocclusion in south Indian population
Sivareddy Rohit Reddy, Singaraju Gowri Sankar, Prasad Mandava, Vivek Reddy Ganugapanta, Surendra Gangavarapu, Swaroop Doddavarapu
March-April 2019, 9(2):129-136
DOI:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_436_18  PMID:31058062
Aims and Objectives: The present study aims to evaluate the gender dimorphism of the angle SN-FH between the sella-nasion (SN) plane and the Frankfort horizontal (FH) plane among the three types of skeletal malocclusion in South Indian population. The objectives included measurement of angle SN-FH, FH to the nasion (NFH), FH to the sella (SFH), and the difference of NFH and SFH (Δ). The null hypothesis was that there exists no variation of the angle SN-FH, NFH, SFH, and Δ between males and females and in the different skeletal relationship of jaws. Materials and Methods: Cephalometric data were retrieved from the archived records of 180 patients, comprising 90 males and 90 females, within three subgroups. Class I (60), Class II (20), and Class III (10) in each of the gender class were examined. Student's “t” test was used to analyze means of the gender differences and analysis of variance between subgroups, and significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: The average values obtained from this study for the overall population are 8.06 ± 3.34; for males, it is 7.42 ± 3.62, and for females, it is 8.7 ± 3.48. The gender difference is statistically significant only in Class I malocclusion (0.002). There is no statistical difference between different skeletal classes of malocclusion. Conclusion: The null hypothesis is partially rejected for as significant difference is established only for some of the parameters under the study.
  989 106 -
Effect of weight reduction on the serum adiponectin and tumor necrosis factor-α levels and the clinical parameters of obese patients with and without periodontal disease
Lalith Vivekananda, Mohamed Faizuddin
March-April 2019, 9(2):166-171
DOI:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_447_18  PMID:31058067
Objective: The objective of the current study was to assess the impact of weight reduction on the attenuation of obesity-related periodontal inflammation. Methods: This study was conducted enrolling 60 obese subjects. They were divided into three groups of 20 each. Group 1-healthy group, Group 2-gingivitis group, and Group 3-periodontitis group. The body mass index and waist/hip ratio, periodontal parameters such as plaque index, bleeding index, full mouth periodontal probing depth (PPD) using the University of North Carolina 15 (UNC 15) probe and full mouth clinical attachment loss (CAL) with cementoenamel junction as the reference using UNC 15 probe was evaluated at baseline and after the attainment of ≥10% weight loss by the subjects. Adiponectin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels were measured in the serum at baseline and after attainment of ≥10% reduction in weight in a period of 3–18 months. Results: Adherence to weight reduction program until the achievement of ≥10% reduction in body weight resulted in statistically significant (P < 0.0001) elevated serum adiponectin and reduced serum TNF-α levels in all three groups. Furthermore, elevations of adiponectin following weight reduction showed significant negative correlations with PPD in all the three groups and in patients with periodontitis, (Group 3) serum adiponectin levels showed significant negative correlations (P = 0.0001) with CAL in Group 3. Conclusions: Controlling obesity presents a good opportunity to alleviate the burden of periodontal disease. Simple weight reduction programs with diet and exercise-related lifestyle modifications may be an efficacious and barrier-free option.
  952 138 1
Oral behavior and dental status of orthodox christian priests and monks
Oksana Avdeenko, Irina Novikova, Anna Turkina, Irina Makeeva
March-April 2019, 9(2):137-143
DOI:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_326_18  PMID:31058063
Aims and Objectives: Common conditions of daily routine and diet may affect the dental status of individuals in organized groups and professional communities. The aim of this study was to reveal the specific aspects of dental status in orthodox priests and monks of the Yaroslavl region, Russia. Materials and Methods: Dental assessment of 311 participants (111 monks; 111 priests; and 90 local residents, not clergymen – as a control group) was performed, including Decayed, Missed, Filled Teeth, oral hygiene index (simplified), gingival, and Modified Papillary Bleeding Indices (MPBIs). The participants completed a questionnaire on food habits and awareness concerning dental health preservation. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis of the data was performed in SPSS software with the use of Shapiro–Wilk, Dunn's, Fisher tests, z-test as well as Spearman correlation, and ANOVA. Results: The median values of MPBI in monks were higher than in the groups of priests and local residents (P = 0.005). The differences in number of missing teeth were significantly higher in priests compared with local residents (P = 0.011), and the number of filled teeth was significantly higher in priests (P = 0.006) and local residents (P = 0.007) compared with monks. Wedge-shaped defects and erosions were more prevalent in the groups of priests (0.0018 and 0.001, respectively) and monks (0.004 and 0.001, respectively). ANOVA resulted in statistically significant influence of teeth brushing frequency and frequency of food intake on hygienic and periodontal indices values. Conclusions: The increased prevalence of some dental diseases among priests and monks could be attributed to the specific diet, lifestyle, and limited access to dental care.
  763 108 -
The prognostic role of maximum standardized uptake value of 18 F-flourodeoxy glucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography in head and neck cancer patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy
Kondaveeti Satish Srinivas, M Arunan, E Venkatachalapathy, Christopher John, M Manickavasagam, CV Divyambika
March-April 2019, 9(2):159-165
DOI:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_409_18  PMID:31058066
Aims and Objectives: This retrospective study aims at correlating the pre- and post-therapy maximal standardized uptake values (SUVmax) of the whole-body 18-flourodeoxy glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scan with tumor response in patients with head and neck squamous cell cancer undergoing chemoradiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Data for this retrospective study were taken from the clinical records of 20 evaluable head and neck cancer patients who had availed treatment and evaluation at our institute during the previous year (March 2017–April 2018). All these above-mentioned patients had undergone chemoradiation at our center for locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck and had undergone pre- and post-therapy whole-body FDG PET scan. The posttherapy PET-computed tomography (CT) was advised after 8 weeks' postcompletion of therapy. During the PET CT scan, images were acquired 1 h after injection of FDG. Pre- and post-therapy SUVmax were recorded and correlated with immediate treatment response. Results: The mean pretherapy SUVMax of the primary tumor was 10.27 ranging from 4.5 to 26.17. The mean pretherapy SUVMax of the node was 5.34 ranging from 0 to 17.9. The mean time of recording the posttherapy SUVMax was 3 months (range 2–5 months). The mean posttherapy SUVMax of the primary tumor was 1.05 ranging from complete metabolic response to 6.4. The mean posttherapy SUVMax of the node was 0.7 ranging from complete metabolic response to 5.43. The statistical analysis based on Wilcoxon–Signed Rank test revealed a statistically significant difference in the pre- and post-therapy SUVmax values for both primary tumor (P < 0.001) and regional node (P = 0.001). Majority of patients (n = 15) showed clinical remission; however, five patients had progressive disease at the time of evaluation. Conclusion: Although the retrospective study revealed that complete responders had a statistically significant reduction in the posttherapy SUVmax in comparison to the pretherapy SUVmax it failed to identify a cutoff value for pretherapy SUVmax which could predict the probable outcome of therapy. In view of the same further prospective studies need to be conducted with larger patient numbers including various other tumor metabolic markers for greater clarity.
  675 103 -
Evaluation of levels of proinflammatory chemokines MIP-1α and MIP-1β in gingival crevicular fluid of primary, mixed and permanent dentition
B Swathi, Marisetty Charitha, Deepthi Mandava, Neeraj Tugaram, Durga Prasad Mudrakola, Ravishankar Yelamanchi
March-April 2019, 9(2):205-209
DOI:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_438_18  PMID:31058072
Aim: This study aims to find out the proinflammatory chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α and MIP-1β levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of primary, mixed, and permanent dentitions. Materials and Methods: GCF of 160 individuals (4–15 years of age) was collected by the extracrevicular method. They were categorized into four groups (40 per each group). Group I: subjects with primary dentition (4–5 years of age), Group II: 40 subjects in early transition period (6–8 years), Group III: 40 individuals in the late transition period (9–11 years), and Group IV: 40 individuals with permanent dentition (12–15 years). MIP-lα and MIP-1β levels were determined in the samples of GCF by ELISA method. Data were analyzed by software SPSS Version 20 (IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, IBM Corp., Armonk, NY: USA). Results: MIP-1α and MIP-1β were detected in all samples. The highest mean MIP-1α and MIP-1β concentrations in GCF were detected in the early transition period, while the lowest concentrations were seen in primary dentition group. The chemokine levels were higher in girls than in boys in Group III. There was a substantial rise of MIP-1α and MIP-1β levels during eruption. Conclusions: Since levels of MIP-1α and MIP-1β in GCF are positively associated with tooth eruption, they may perhaps be deemed as novel biomarkers in the eruption process.
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