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Table of Contents   
PREVALENCE OF MALOCCLUSION
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 97-102
Prevalence of malocclusion among adolescents in South Indian population


1 Departments of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics, Genesis Institute of Dental Sciences and Research, Ferozepur, Punjab, India
2 Sri Hasanamba Dental College, Hassan, Rajiv Gandhi University Health Sciences, Karnataka, India

Date of Web Publication29-Nov-2013

Correspondence Address:
H Kaur
Genesis Institute of Dental Sciences and Research, Dental College and Hospital, Ferozepur Moga Road, Ferozepur 152 004, Punjab
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2231-0762.122453

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   Abstract 

Objective: To record prevalence of malocclusion among 2,400 adolescents in Karnataka state, India and to define difference in malocclusion status in urban and rural population. Design: Randomized cross-sectional study. Setting: School students of Karnataka state, 24 August 2011 to 30 March 2012. Participants: School students in the age group of 13-17 years. Materials and Methods: Each individual was assessed for occlusal traits - sagittal occlusion, overjet, overbite, crowding, midline diastema, and crossbite. Statistical Analysis Used: Examinations were computerized and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 16. Chi-square test was used for computing statistical significance. Results: 87.79% of population had malocclusion. Out of which 89.45% had class I, 8.37% had class II, and 2.14% had class III malocclusion. Normal overjet and overbite was seen in 48.22 and 49.87% of subjects, respectively. Frequency of crowding was 58.12% and 15.43% of subjects had midline diastema. Anterior crossbite was present in 8.48% and posterior crossbite in 0.99%. Urban population had twice the class II sagittal occlusion, and increased overjet as compared to rural population. Conclusions: Malocclusion is widely spread among population of Karnataka state, with greater prevalence in urban population. Early exfoliation of deciduous teeth and refined diet can be considered as viable etiological factors.


Keywords: Buccal occlusion, crossbite, crowding, malocclusion, midline diastema, overjet, overbite, prevalence, saggital occlusion


How to cite this article:
Kaur H, Pavithra U S, Abraham R. Prevalence of malocclusion among adolescents in South Indian population. J Int Soc Prevent Communit Dent 2013;3:97-102

How to cite this URL:
Kaur H, Pavithra U S, Abraham R. Prevalence of malocclusion among adolescents in South Indian population. J Int Soc Prevent Communit Dent [serial online] 2013 [cited 2021 Oct 24];3:97-102. Available from: https://www.jispcd.org/text.asp?2013/3/2/97/122453



   Introduction Top


Significance of any disease in particular area can be gazed by its prevalence. This becomes even more important for developing country like India where oral health program and preventive measures are far from satisfying needs.

Prevalence of malocclusion has been studied in adolescents of Cicero, [1] Negro children of Columbia, [2] Black American children in the Evanston-Oak Park of Illinois [3] Minnesota, [4] Indiana and Kikuyu tribe of Kenya, [5] Korean cleft patients, [6] Hvar Island Croatia, [7] Italian students, [8] Hungarian population, [9] Naples, [10] Iranian school children, [11] and Tanzanian school children. [12]

Karnataka state, is an active agriculture place with people from a wide spectrum of cultural and religion background. To date there is no available data on status of prevalence of malocclusion in Karnataka. Thus aim of the study was to record prevalence of malocclusion and to define difference in malocclusion status in urban and rural population.


   Materials and Methods Top


The sample size was determined from a pilot study conducted at Hassan district. Thus, the study was conducted among 2,400 school students in the age group of 13-17 years. The study group was taken both from urban and rural areas in the proportion of 1:2, respectively from 30 districts of Karnataka using simple random sampling procedure. [Table 1] and [Figure 1]
Figure 1: Normal population distribution

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Table 1: Distribution of sample

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Inclusion criteria

  • No previous orthodontic treatment done
  • Secondary dentition present with no remaining deciduous teeth
  • All had their first permanent molars.


The criterion was limited to occlusal anterio-posterior (A-P) relationship, crowding, [13] overjet, [13] overbite, [13] midline diastema, [13] and crossbite.

Informed consent was taken and was confirmed by one of the parent.

Examination procedure

Each subject was examined by a single examiner with aid of natural light. Torch was used whenever required. Occlusal characteristics were assessed with the help of mouth mirror and metallic scale [Table 2].
Table 2: Method of registration

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The study was conducted over a period of 7 months starting from 24 August 2011 - 30 March 2012.


   Results Top


12.21% had class I normal occlusion. 15.43% of rural and 9% of urban population had class I normal occlusion with statistically significant difference between rural and urban population (P = 0.000) [Figure 2]. Class I sagittal occlusion was found in 89.45% of the subjects, Class II in 8.37%, and Class III in 2.14% with statistically significant difference (P = 0.00) between two groups [Table 3] and [Figure 3].
Figure 2: Prevalence of normal occlusion

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Figure 3: Anteroposterior molar relation

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Table 3: Prevalence of occlusal traits

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Normal overjet was seen in 48.22%, excessive in 33.71%, and reduced in 18.07% [Figure 4]. The difference between urban and rural population was statistically significant (P = 0.000) with urban population having more of increased overjet. Normal overbite was seen in 49.87%, deep in 35.97%, and reduced in 14.15% of total sample with no statistically significant difference between urban and rural population (P = 0.083) [Table 3] and [Figure 5].

The frequency of crowding was 58.12%. Urban population had 58.25% and rural had slightly less (57.37%), but difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.683) [Figure 6]. Midline diastema was present in 15.43% with no statistically significant difference (P = 0.551) between urban and rural population [Table 3] and [Figure 7].
Figure 4: Distribution of overjet

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Figure 5: Distribution of overbite

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Figure 6: Prevalence of crowding

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Figure 7: Prevalence of midline diastema

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Anterior crossbite was present in 8.48% of subjects. Urban population had 8.25% and rural had 8.56% anterior crossbite with no statistically significant difference (P = 0.816) [Figure 8]. Posterior crossbite was present in 0.99%. Urban population had 1.25% and rural population of 0.69% had posterior cross bite with no statistically significant difference (P = 0.112) between two groups [Table 3] and [Figure 9].
Figure 8: Prevalence of anterior crossbite

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Figure 9: Prevalence of posterior crossbite

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   Discussion Top


This survey provides the first estimate of prevalence of malocclusion in Karnataka state. Examination was confined to high school students because of ease of accessibility; [1] with a complete permanent dentition as malocclusion occurring in the mixed dentition is sometimes transitional leading to erroneous conclusions.

Qualitative and quantitative methods available for measuring malocclusion are not truly inclusive of all occlusal criteria, [1],[14] thus, an alternative approach was used to register malocclusion by using occlusal characteristics. Angle's classification that is reliable, repeatable, [15] and idealistically oriented for a broad population study [16] was used for checking sagittal occlusion. Malocclusion has often been referred to as a "disease of civilization", signifying that it is found (or at least reported) primarily in urbanized populations. This calls for rural-urban dichotomy.

Prevalence of malocclusion was high and comparative to studies [2],[17],[18],[19] conducted by Rajendra in Bangalore city, Kharbandha in Delhi, by Altemus in Negro children, and U.S Public Health Survey. Findings of this present study were in disagreement with Guaba (1998) [20] in the district of Ambala (70.8 per cent had normal occlusion). Prevalence of malocclusion was comparatively less (7%) as compared to studies [21] conducted on Chinese.

Class I molar relation was almost the same as found in studies [4] conducted in Minnesota. There was a significantly higher prevalence of Class III occlusion among the Chinese, Malays, and blacks as compared to the Indians. [5],[21] Prevalence of overjet and overbite found in present study was same as that in urban Iranian school children, Yoruba adolescents in Ibadan, Nigeria, [11],[13] and study conducted on three ethnic races; Chinese, Malay, and Indian in Malaysia. [21]

Crowding was present in 57.69% of subjects. This was similar to the finding of Usha Mohan Das and Ali Borzabadi that crowding anterior was most common finding in subjects with class I malocclusion. [11],[22] This was in accordance with study conducted by Woon [21] that stated crowded dentition was also a norm for the three races: Chinese, Malay, and Indian. Prevalence of crowding was same as seen in the Hvar island, Croatia; among Lithuanian school children; in Naples; in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil; and Jordanian subjects, [7],[10],[23],[24],[25] Much less prevalence of crowding was seen among adolescents of Ibadan, Nigeria (20%), [13] Present study found midline diastema in 15.65% of subjects. This prevalence was much more as compared to study [26] conducted by Gnanasundaram and Hashim on prevalence of midline diastema (1.6%) in Chennai city. Prevalence of midline diastema was much less than adolescents of Ibadan, Nigeria (37%). [13] Anterior cross bite was present in 8.46% and posterior cross-bite was present in 0.88%. Posterior crossbite was recorded much more (8.8%) among Lithuanian schoolchildren; Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil (19.2%); urban Iranian school children; and in Lahore city (24%), Pakistan [11],[23],[24],[27] Difference was much more as compared to Lahore city as in their study data was collected from patients who visited department of orthodontics.

Urban population had twice the class II sagittal occlusion and increased overjet as compared to rural population. This difference was similar to the study [28] done to assess occlusal variation in three southwest Pacific populations. Dietary consistency can be considered as viable reason as the posterior region of mandible is associated with muscles of mastication, [29] As far as anterior region is concerned habits can be considered as reason for discrepancy in urban and rural population. Further research is needed to determine whether there is association between above written factors and malocclusion.

This study is limited as it has only recorded malocclusion in age group of 13-17 years which cannot be generalized to entire population. Secondly, orthodontically treated cases were excluded which can underestimate the prevalence of occlusal traits. But the proportion of adolescents who underwent orthodontic therapy and excluded were relatively small and thus does not make statistically significant difference in results. Thirdly, there are considerable variations in figures obtained as different researchers have used different criteria for assessing the same occlusal trait. This lay emphasis on the need to standardize criteria for assessing malocclusion.


   Conclusion Top


Malocclusion is widespread in population examined at Karnataka State, India. Prevalence of malocclusion was more in urban population when compared with rural population. Crowded incisors were the most common feature associated with class I malocclusion. Require further studies in area to find etiology for various occlusal traits.

 
   References Top

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    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7], [Figure 8], [Figure 9]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]

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Indian journal of Medical Biochemistry. 2018; 22(1): 36
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
43 Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Diabetes Mellitus: A Bitter Combo
Indian Journal of Sleep Medicine. 2018; 13(3): 48
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
44 Correlation between Cervical Vertebrae Volume Parameter and the Skeletal Maturation Status
Ousama A Ayach,Rania Hadad
The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice. 2018; 19(6): 662
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
45 Comparative Study of the Efficacy of 4% Articaine vs 2% Lidocaine in Surgical Removal of Bilaterally Impacted Mandibular Third Molars
Gurpreet Kaur,Jyoti Mittal,Harmunish S Mann,Samisha Narang,Mohit Kamra,Shekhar Kapoor,Madhu Sindhi,Ramneet Kataria
The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice. 2018; 19(6): 743
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
46 Efficacy of Caries Removal by Carie-Care and Erbiumdoped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet Laser in Primary Molars: A Scanning Electron Microscope Study
Chandrashekar Yavagal,Attiguppe Prabhakar,Manjunath Lokeshwari
International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry. 2018; 11(4): 323
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
47 Multidisciplinary Clinical Management of a Localized Aggressive Periodontitis diagnosed in a Child with Glanzmann\æs Thrombasthenia
Elisabeth Roy,Assem Soueidan,Marc Fouassier
International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry. 2018; 11(4): 344
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
48 Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Screening of Allium sativum Linn. Leaf
Gajendra Rao,Rekha B Nirawane,Sharayu N Rajyadhyaksha
Journal of Drug Research in Ayurvedic Sciences. 2018; 3(1): 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
49 Temporary Ovarian Suspension: An Overview
Vandana Jain,Nutan Jain,Anshu Agarwal,Kaustubh Srivastava
International Journal of Gynecological Endoscopy. 2018; 2(1): 29
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
50 A Study on Renal Function Status of Patients with Hypothyroidism attending a Tertiary Care Hospital in North Bengal
Shubhrajit Saha,Indrajit Nath,Mita S Das,Samarpita Mukherjee
Indian journal of Medical Biochemistry. 2018; 22(1): 10
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
51 Serum Homocysteine and Its Association with Lipid Profile in Type II Diabetes Mellitus
Bushra Fiza,Jaishree Choudhary,Maheep Sinha,Rati Mathur
Indian journal of Medical Biochemistry. 2018; 22(1): 26
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
52 Veneer or Interproximal Enamel Reduction?
Mohamed S Bamashmous
The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice. 2018; 19(6): 749
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
53 Three-dimensional evaluation of airway volume changes in two expansion activation protocols
Varghah Lotfi,Ahmed Ghoneima,Manuel Lagravere,Katherine Kula,Kelton Stewart
International Orthodontics. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
54 Évaluation tridimensionnelle des modifications du volume des voies aériennes selon deux protocoles d’activation par expansion
Varghah Lotfi,Ahmed Ghoneimaa,Manuel Lagravere,Katherine Kula,Kelton Stewart
International Orthodontics. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
55 An Enumeration and Review of Medicinal Plants Mentioned in Bhela Samhita
Kshirod K Ratha,Sudhanshu K Meher
Journal of Drug Research in Ayurvedic Sciences. 2018; 3(1): 53
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
56 Noninvasive Ventilation Therapy: Practical issues in the Domiciliary use
Ravi Dosi,Priyanshu Jain,Arpit Jain,Satish Motiwale,Prakash Joshi
Indian Journal of Sleep Medicine. 2018; 13(3): 39
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
57 Influence of Three-dimensional Imaging on Implant Treatment Planning: Implant Diameter and Length
Dorothea C Dagassan-Berndt,Walter Clemens,Nicola U Zitzmann,Ralf K Schulze
The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice. 2018; 19(6): 704
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
58 A Survey on Traditional Health Care Practices for treating Livestock Diseases in Sitapur District, Uttar Pradesh, India
Gopal C Nanda
Journal of Drug Research in Ayurvedic Sciences. 2018; 3(1): 23
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
59 Comprehensive Pharmacology Review of Guduchi [Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers]
Lalrinpuia Kawlni,Sachchidanand Upadhayay,Koyel Mukherjee
Journal of Drug Research in Ayurvedic Sciences. 2018; 3(1): 48
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
60 Overtreatment in Implant Dentistry
International Journal of Prosthodontics and Restorative Dentistry. 2018; 8(1): 2
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
61 Comparison of Direct Bilirubin on Two Automated Systems: Influence of Delta Bilirubin
Ekta Bansal
Indian journal of Medical Biochemistry. 2018; 22(1): 75
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
62 A Hospital-based Study of Renal Function Tests in Chronic Alcoholics
Velu Malarkodi,Mala Malathi
Indian journal of Medical Biochemistry. 2018; 22(1): 22
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
63 Submucous Myoma: Laparoscopic Myomectomy
Vandana Jain,Nutan Jain,Parima Jain
International Journal of Gynecological Endoscopy. 2018; 2(1): 35
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
64 Nonvital Bleaching: A Case Series on whitening Procedure for Discolored Endodontically Treated Teeth
Manish Agarwal,Anu Narang,Shilpi Awadhiya,Mahendra Jain
International Journal of Prosthodontics and Restorative Dentistry. 2018; 8(1): 28
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
65 A Study on Association of Degree of Physical Exercise and Plasma 25-(OH) Vitamin D Levels
Sandeep S Soam,Thokchom O Singh,Sonali Chaturvedi,Gautam Sarkar
Indian journal of Medical Biochemistry. 2018; 22(1): 90
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
66 Establishment of a Modulus Measurement Method in Denture-supporting Tissue using an Intraoral Simultaneous Measurement System and Finite Element Analysis
Satomi Tanaka,Yuji Sato,Noboru Kitagawa,Osamu Shimodaira,Akio Isobe,Tomoka Omori,Naoya Takamatsu
International Journal of Prosthodontics and Restorative Dentistry. 2018; 8(1): 3
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
67 Effectiveness of the American Board of Orthodontics Discrepancy Index in predicting Treatment Time
The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice. 2018; 19(6): 647
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
68 Evaluation of Effectiveness of Two Different Endodontic Retreatment Systems in Removal of Gutta-percha: An in vitro Study
Krantikiran Reddy Ealla,PK Thaju Raj,Durga P Mudrakola,Deepak Baby,Rajeev K Govindankutty,Dilu Davis,Thenasseri P Sasikumar
The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice. 2018; 19(6): 726
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
69 Vitamin D Status and Its Association with Age and Gender in East Sikkim
Yogesh Verma,Sonam C Bhutia,Rashmi R Phukan
Indian journal of Medical Biochemistry. 2018; 22(1): 71
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
70 Thyroid Dysfunction and Its Influence in Growth Velocity in Children with Down Syndrome: A Retrospective Study
Vidhya Vishwanathan,Subramanian Sethuraman,Shanthi Balaji,VS Kalai Selvi,AJ Manjula Devi
Indian journal of Medical Biochemistry. 2018; 22(1): 6
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
71 Prerequisites for Laparoscopic Hysterectomies
Ibrahim Alkatout,Liselotte Mettler
International Journal of Gynecological Endoscopy. 2018; 2(1): 6
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
72 Endoscopic Findings of Female Genital Tract Tuberculosis: A 3-year Analysis at a Referral Center
Vandana Jain,Nutan Jain,Sonil Srivastav,Kriti Agarwal
International Journal of Gynecological Endoscopy. 2018; 2(1): 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
73 Evaluation of Effect of Connector Designs in Implant Tooth-supported Fixed Partial Denture: A Two-dimensional Finite Element Analysis
Srinivasa Gowda,Dilip D Quadras,Rajeet S Sesappa,Vidyachandra Katapadi
The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice. 2018; 19(6): 669
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
74 Alveolar Bone and Epithelial Attachment Status following Two Different Closed-eruption Surgical Techniques for Impacted Maxillary Central Incisors
Ayman Mourad,Elia Sfeir,Mona Gholmieh,Zouhair Skaf
International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry. 2018; 11(4): 317
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
75 An in vitro Study to Evaluate the Bioactivity of Osteoblast Cells on the Titanium Disk Coated with the Hydro Gel formulated from Acemannan and Curcuminoids
Praneeth R Pachimalla
International Journal of Prosthodontics and Restorative Dentistry. 2018; 8(1): 22
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
76 Rapidly Developing Obstructive Sleep Apnea due to Fixation Failure of Atrophic Mandibular Bilateral Body Fractures
Gaurav Jain,Ankit Arora,Sahil Gagnani,Rahul Yadav
Indian Journal of Sleep Medicine. 2018; 13(1): 18
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
77 Evaluation of Total Salivary Secretory Immunoglobulin A and Mutans-specific SIgA among Children having Dissimilar Caries Status
Ravi Nagpal,Sunil Pandey,Mahima Goel,Ankita Kar,Eliezer Rapsang,Priya Matani
The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice. 2018; 19(6): 651
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
78 Effect of Henna Addition on the Surface Roughness and Hardness of Polymethylmethacrylate Denture Base Material: An in vitro Study
Amal Nawasrah,Mohammed M Gad,Mai El Zayat
The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice. 2018; 19(6): 732
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
79 Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Mothers regarding Oral Hygiene of Primary School children in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
Joyson Moses,Shanmugaavel K Arunachalam
International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry. 2018; 11(4): 338
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
80 Obstructive Sleep Apnea – Insomnia Overlap Syndrome
Indian Journal of Sleep Medicine. 2018; 13(1): 13
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
81 How Safe is It to Place Titanium Dental Implants in Patients with Autoimmune Disorders?
International Journal of Prosthodontics and Restorative Dentistry. 2018; 8(1): 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
82 Pisat's Visual Vasopressor Injection Needle: A New Instrument for enhancing Patient Safety in Laparoscopic Myomectomy
Sanket Pisat
International Journal of Gynecological Endoscopy. 2018; 2(1): 4
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
83 Effect of Surface Treatments and Adhesive Materials on the Shear Bond Strength of Artificial Denture Teeth to Denture Base Resins
Abdulelah M BinMahfooz,Osama A Qutub
The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice. 2018; 19(6): 631
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
84 Combination of Multiple Teaching Tools in learning Biochemistry: Perceptions of Medical Undergraduate Students
Vijayetha P Patil,Shrirang P Kulkarni,Dhiraj J Trivedi,Anil B Bargale,Pramod S Kamble,Deepti G Ingleshwar,Vidya S Patil,Alagilwada S Shilpasree,Axita C Vani,Praveen K Shetty,Rakesh T Muddaraddi
Indian journal of Medical Biochemistry. 2018; 22(1): 41
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
85 Papillon–Lefèvre Syndrome: A Rare Case Report of Two Brothers and Review of the Literature
Hytham N Fageeh
International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry. 2018; 11(4): 352
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
86 Spectrophotometric Comparison of Effectiveness of Two In-office Bleaching Agents with/without Light Activation: A Clinical Study
Rasha AlSheikh,Abeer E El-Embaby
The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice. 2018; 19(6): 637
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
87 Correlation of Serum Copper and Zinc Levels with Glycemic Status in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Uncomplicated Type II Diabetes Mellitus
Sarika Arora,Poonam Agarwal,Monica Verma,Bishamber D Tooraa
Indian journal of Medical Biochemistry. 2018; 22(1): 32
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
88 Time and Eruption Sequence of Permanent Teeth in Hyderabad Children: A Descriptive Cross-sectional Study
Penmatsa Chaitanya,Jampanapalli S Reddy,Konda Suhasini,Inguva H Chandrika,Dalavai Praveen
International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry. 2018; 11(4): 330
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
89 Effect of Steam Sauna Bath on Fasting Blood Glucose Level in Healthy Adults
Vandana V Shiralkar,Pratap E Jagtap,Gajanan J Belwalkar,Nitin S Nagane,Sushama P Dhonde
Indian journal of Medical Biochemistry. 2018; 22(1): 18
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
90 Large Follicular Odontogenic Keratocyst affecting Maxillary Sinus mimicking Dentigerous Cyst in an 8-year-old Boy: A Case Report and Review
Madhusudhan R Madhireddy,A Jacob Prakash,Vijayalakshmi Mahanthi,K Venkata Chalapathi
International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry. 2018; 11(4): 349
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
91 Evaluation of Therapeutic Efficacy of Adjustable Mandibular Advancement Device in the Management of Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Sunil Kumar,Mohit Sharma,Amit Bansal,B Jayan,Prasanna Kumar MP
Indian Journal of Sleep Medicine. 2018; 13(1): 5
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
92 Assessment of the Effect of Simulated Rhinoplasty and Genioplasty on the Facial Profile Attractiveness of Patients with a Convex Face
Saied Sadeghian,Amin Shirvani,Zeinab Azamian
The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice. 2018; 19(6): 719
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
93 “Mind” in Betel-quid Use and Related Disorders
Shailesh M Gondivkar,Amol R Gadbail
The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice. 2018; 19(6): 629
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
94 Evaluation of Various Sterilization Processes of Orthodontic Instruments using Biological Indicators and Conventional Swab Test Method: A Comparative Study
Rajeev Lall,Anshu Sahu,Ankita Jaiswal,Sunder Kite,AR Sowmya,MC Sainath
The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice. 2018; 19(6): 698
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
95 Comparative Assessment of Facial Asymmetry in Malocclusion using Posteroanterior View
Rajeev Lall,Anshu Sahu,Sumaiya Nezam,Rajat Singh,Shashi B Kumar,Faizan B Ayub
The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice. 2018; 19(6): 712
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
96 Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among Reproductiveaged Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Study from West-Central India
Sunita M Aghade
Indian journal of Medical Biochemistry. 2018; 22(1): 61
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
97 Laparoscopic Subtotal Hysterectomy: Does It Still have a Stand?
Ibrahim Alkatout,Liselotte Mettler
International Journal of Gynecological Endoscopy. 2018; 2(1): 22
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
98 Tonsillectomy: Patient Response-based Assessment and Results in Urban Indian Population
Nidhi V Maggon,Ashwani Sethi
International Journal of Head and Neck Surgery. 2017; 8(3): 89
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
99 Strategies for integrating Sleep Medicine in Dental Practice and Postgraduate Training
Abhijeet Kadu,Balakrishnan Jayan,Reena R Kumar,Oommen Nainan,Probod K Chattopadhyay
Indian Journal of Sleep Medicine. 2017; 12(3): 33
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
100 Clinical Evaluation and Management of Deep Neck Space Infections
Tejaswini Honnegowda,Wilma D Silvia,S Vinay Babu
International Journal of Head and Neck Surgery. 2017; 8(3): 102
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
101 Lymph Node Metastasis from Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma or Tuberculous Lymphadenitis: A Diagnostic Dilemma
Niraj Mohan,Yi Y Chia,Chung FJ Ng,Gopalakrishna N Iyer,Hiang K Tan,Ngian C Tan,Siti Radhziah
International Journal of Head and Neck Surgery. 2017; 8(3): 121
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
102 Role of Autologous Costal Cartilage Grafts in Otolaryngology Practice: A Surgical Review
Sanjeev Mohanty,Vinoth Manimaran
International Journal of Head and Neck Surgery. 2017; 8(3): 93
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
103 Hypersomnolence among Adolescents: Narcolepsy an Often Misdiagnosed Condition
Garima Shukla,Zia Hashim,Loveleen Mangla,Anupama Gupta,Alok Nath,Ravi Mishra
Indian Journal of Sleep Medicine. 2017; 12(3): 49
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
104 Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor: A Rare Tumor in the Tongue
Bajarang Prasad Sah,Sudeep Mishra,Sachin L Shilpakar,Dillu R Kandel
International Journal of Head and Neck Surgery. 2017; 8(3): 128
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
105 Sleep Disorders in Parkinson\æs Disease
A Elavarsi,Garima Shukla
Indian Journal of Sleep Medicine. 2017; 12(3): 44
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
106 A Novel Technique for Surgical Reduction of Long-standing Temporomandibular Joint Dislocation
Jeremiah R Moshy,Shaban D Shaban
International Journal of Head and Neck Surgery. 2017; 8(3): 107
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
107 Intralesional Bleomycin as Therapeutic Modality for Low-flow Venous Malformations: Treatment on Outpatient Basis
Abhishek Bhardwaj,Shashank Gupta,Rojita Moirangthem,Abhimanyu Anant,Naresh Bharadwaj
International Journal of Head and Neck Surgery. 2017; 8(3): 112
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
108 Dermoid Cyst of Neck: A Diagnostic Dilemma and a Therapeutic Challenge
Sultanipura N Somashekhar
International Journal of Head and Neck Surgery. 2017; 8(3): 125
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
109 Reconstruction of Oromandibular Defects by Vascularized Free Flaps: The Radial Forearm Free Flap and Fibular Free Flap as Major Donor Sites
Virani J Shamsuddin,Sanjeev Patni,Shashikant Saini,Kamal K Lakhera,Gurdyal S Kalra
International Journal of Head and Neck Surgery. 2017; 8(3): 98
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
110 Diabetics with Obstructive Sleep Apnea need Higher Positive Airway Pressures
Ashalatha Radhakrishnan,Sapna E Sreedharan,Pragati Agrawal,Chembakode A Anees,MJ Pradeep,P Sankara Sharma
Indian Journal of Sleep Medicine. 2017; 12(3): 39
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
111 Clear Cell Odontogenic Carcinoma of the Mandible: Diagnostic Difficulty and Therapeutic Dilemma
Shivakumar Thiagarajan,Sajith Babu,Hamsa Nandini,KP Kavitha
International Journal of Head and Neck Surgery. 2017; 8(3): 118
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
112 Prevalence of and factors affecting malocclusion in primary dentition among children in Xi’an, China
Zhifei Zhou,Fen Liu,Shuning Shen,Linjuan Shang,Lei Shang,Xiaojing Wang
BMC Oral Health. 2016; 16(1)
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113 Prevalence of Malocclusion among 10–12-year-old Schoolchildren in Kozhikode District, Kerala: An Epidemiological Study
TV Anupam Kumar,Retna Kumari Narayanan,MT Jeseem
International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry. 2016; 9(1): 50
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
114 Comparison of temporomandibular joint changes in Twin Block and Bionator appliance therapy: a magnetic resonance imaging study
Santosh J Chavan,Wasundhara A Bhad,Umal H Doshi
Progress in Orthodontics. 2014; 15(1): 57
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115 Frecuencia de bruxismo y tipo de oclusión dental en un grupo de adolescentes mexicanos.
José Francisco Murrieta,Verónica Rubi Cielo,Josefina Morales,Carmen Lilia Sánchez,Celia Linares,Martha Beatríz González
Journal Oral Of Research. 2014; 3(4): 211
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