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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 451-456

A comparative immunohistochemical study of presence and distribution pattern of stromal myofibroblast in oral dysplasia and in different grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma

1 Department of Oral Pathology, Government Dental College, Silchar, Assam, India
2 Department of Oral Pathology, Rajarajeswari Dental College, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
3 Department of Oral Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Sebha University, Sebha, Libya

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Sanjay Murgod
Department of Oral Pathology, Rajarajeswari Dental College, No 14, Ramohally Cross, Kumbalgodu, Mysore Road, Bengaluru - 560 074, Karnataka
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_236_18

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Aims and Objectives: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a common oral malignancy with a poor survival rate. Early tumorigenesis is marked by transdifferentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts (MFs), which is supported by growth factors and cytokines expressed by tumor cells. The expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) marker correlates with the activation of MFs. This study was undertaken to compare the frequency and distribution of αSMA immunoexpression in oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) and OSCC. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on samples collected from patients with oral epithelial dysplasia and oral SCC who visited Rajarajeswari Dental College and Hospital, Bengaluru. Tissue sections were subjected to Immunohistochemistry using αSMA marker, and cells were counted. The obtained data was subjected to Kruskal–Wallis test and Mann–Whitney U-test. Results: On performing Kruskal–Wallis test and Mann–Whitney U-test between the three groups (normal oral mucosa, OED, and OSCC) statistically significant result was found in the frequency between OED and OSCC and between normal tissue and OSCC. On comparing the distribution pattern, statistically significant result was found between OED and OSCC and between normal tissue and OSCC. Conclusion: The expression of MFs increases as the disease progresses from high-grade epithelial dysplasia to invasive OSCC. Poorly differentiated SCC showed more attendance of positive MFs in the stroma than other grades of OSCC. The rise in the number of αSMA-positive MFs and change in distribution pattern in OSCC can be associated with tumor invasive characteristics. Thus, the proliferation of MFs may be used as a stromal marker of premalignancy and malignancy.

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