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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 50-57

Evaluation of cognitive impairment in Type 2 diabetic patients with chronic periodontitis: a cross-sectional study


1 Department of Periodontology, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Mangalore, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India
2 Department of General Medicine, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India
3 Department of Psychiatry, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India
4 Department of Oral Pathology, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Mangalore, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ashita Uppoor
Department of Periodontology, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Mangalore, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka.
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_349_20

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Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is an important risk factor for dementia; it also shares a bidirectional relationship with periodontitis. It is hypothesized that the increased severity of periodontitis is associated with cognitive decline in patients having uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. An added risk for future development as well as progression of dementia may be prophesied in such a scenario. Therefore, the present study was conducted to find a correlation between the cognitive impairment (CI) and periodontitis in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 160 older adults aged ≥60 years in Mangalore, Karnataka, India, were included in the present analysis. Known T2DM patients aged ≥60 years and diagnosed with periodontitis with a minimum clinical attachment loss (CAL) of ≥2 mm were considered in the present study. Montreal cognitive assessment test assessed the CI. The analysis was carried out using the χ2 test, an independent t-test. Binary logistic regression analysis (enter method) was performed to derive the odds ratios (95% confidence interval). Results: The study included 160 participants, out of which 120 had CI and 40 did not have CI. A statistically significant association was observed between moderate-to-severe periodontitis, HbA1c levels ≥7%, and CI after excluding the confounding factors like age, gender, diet, lifestyle habits, and education. Conclusion: In the present study, cognitive impairment was found to coexist with HbA1c levels ≥7% and moderate-to-severe periodontitis in the elderly diabetics. The clinical implication of these findings adds opportunities to form disease modifiable areas in the elderly diabetic population at a risk for the development of dementia. Additionally, the impact of pre-existing CI on progression of periodontitis and vice versa has been discussed.


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