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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 294-306

Golden standard and golden proportion of maxillary anterior teeth among Saudi population in Makkah


1 Fixed Prosthodontics Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt; Faculty of Dentistry, Umm Alqura University, Mecca, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
2 Faculty of Dentistry, Umm Alqura University, Mecca, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
3 Faculty of Dentistry, Umm Alqura University, Mecca, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; Department of Pediatric, Dental Public Health and Preventive Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Assoc .Prof. Wahdan Mohammed Abdelghany Elkwatehy
Department of Pediatric, Dental Public Health and Preventive Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Mansoura University, Mansoura.
Egypt
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_432_20

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Background: Maxillary anterior teeth are important in achieving optimum aesthetics, Different methods are used to calculate their dimension: as golden standard (GS) to measure Width/Height (W/H) of anterior teeth and Golden Proportion (GP) to measure their perceived widths. Researchers had reported on GS and GP in different populations. Objectives: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the occurrence of GS and GP of maxillary anterior teeth among the Saudi population in Makkah. Materials and Methods: A total of 384 participants (2304 teeth) were included in this study; photographs were taken by using a digital camera at a fixed distance and saved on a personal computer; the perceived mesio-distal widths and occluso-gingival heights of the maxillary anterior teeth were measured; GS was calculated from W/H of upper central incisors (W11/H11 and W21/H21); and GP was calculated from width of canines/laterals (W13/W12 and W23/W22) and laterals/centrals (W12/W11 and W22/W21). The normal range of GS was considered between 75% and 85%, whereas the normal range of GP was considered between 55% and 65%. Data were analyzed by using suitable statistical tests, and p-value ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Both GS and GP were compared in relation to gender, race, and shape of the face. Results: There were 43% of GS ratios, 14% of GP of canines/laterals, and 34% of GP ratios of laterals/centrals that were within the normal range. There were no significant differences between GS of males and females (p=0.512) as well as among different races (0.137), whereas there were significant differences among different face shapes (p=0.001). For GP of canines/laterals, there were significant differences between males and females (p=0.000), different races (p=0.000), and different face shapes (p=0.001). For GP of laterals/centrals; there were no significant differences between males and females (p=0.216) whereas there were significant differences among different races (p=0.000) and different face shapes (p=0.007). Conclusion: The GS was 85% among the Saudi population in Makkah and it was more prevalent than other golden measures. The GP was 77.5 for canines/laterals and 65.8 for laterals/centrals, and their frequencies were very low. Personal characteristics and dento–facial specifications should be considered to obtain maximum aesthetics.


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