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Evaluation of Microflora (Viral and Bacterial) in Subgingival and Placental Samples of Pregnant Women with Preeclampsia with and without Periodontal Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study

1 Department of Periodontology, Narayana Dental College and Hospital, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India
2 Department of Periodontology, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College & Hospital, Meenakshi Academy of Higher Education & Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
3 Department of Advanced Research Centre, Narayana Medical College, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Jaideep Mahendra,
Department of Periodontology, , Meenakshi Ammal Dental College & Hospital, Meenakshi Academy of Higher Education & Research, Madhuravoyal, Chennai 600095, Tamil Nadu.
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_341_19

Aim: Previous studies showed associated periodontal disease with various systemic ailments. This research work was aimed at studying the presence and role of periodontal microflora on preeclampsia during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed on pregnant women with preeclampsia with and without chronic periodontitis, attending Narayana Medical College and Hospital, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India, for prenatal checkups. After obtaining consents, 445 women were recruited in the study. On the basis of systemic and periodontal health, subjects were grouped into Group 1 (women with preeclampsia with chronic periodontitis) and Group 2 (women with preeclampsia without chronic periodontitis). Clinical parameters such as plaque index, bleeding on probing, probing depth, and clinical attachment level were recorded. Quantification of periodontopathic bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola), Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and herpes simplex virus (HSV), were detected using real-time polymerase chain reaction in subgingival samples at one point of time and later compared in placental tissue after parturition. Results: T. forsythia, T. denticola, F. nucleatum, P. intermedia, EBV, CMV, and HSV were expressed more in Group 3 compared to those in Groups 2, 4, and 1, in their subgingival and placental samples. Conclusion: Elevated levels of bacteria and viruses were expressed in subgingival and placental samples in women with preeclampsia with chronic periodontitis compared to those in women with preeclampsia without chronic periodontitis. This shows that chronic periodontitis is a risk factor for preeclampsia. The results concluded that periodontal flora is not only localized to periodontal tissues but can also enter uterine cavity and may elicit their pathological response on mother and developing fetus.

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