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   2014| May-August  | Volume 4 | Issue 2  
    Online since September 11, 2014

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Oral health care education and its effect on caregivers' knowledge, attitudes, and practices: A randomized controlled trial
Sanjeev Khanagar, Amit Kumar, Vasuda Rajanna, Bhumika Kamal Badiyani, Vinod Rakesh Jathanna, Prajna V Kini
May-August 2014, 4(2):122-128
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.139843  PMID:25254198
Background: The population of older people as well as the number of dependent older people is steadily increasing. Those unable to live independently at home are being cared for in a range of settings. Practical training for nurses and auxiliary care staff has frequently been recommended as a way of improving oral health care for functionally dependent elderly. Aim: To evaluate an oral health education program for the caretakers of institutionalized elderly. Materials and Methods: The study was a cluster randomized intervention trial with an elderly home as the unit of randomization. Seven out of 65 elderly homes accommodating a total of 78 caretakers and 462 elderly residents were selected in Bangalore city, India, out of which 3 elderly homes were assigned to the intervention group and 4 to the control group. Oral health knowledge of caretakers was assessed using a pre-tested proforma; later, oral health education was provided to the caretakers of the intervention group. Oral health education was given at the end of 6 months to the caretakers of the control group. Chi-square test, Fisher exact test, and paired proportion test were used for statistical analysis. Results: There was significant improvement in the oral health knowledge of the caretakers from baseline in the interventional group. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that there was a significant improvement in the oral health knowledge among the caretakers. Educating the caretakers for assisting or enabling residents for maintaining oral hygiene is essential.
  17 4,268 396
Effectiveness of different tooth brushing techniques on the removal of dental plaque in 6-8 year old children of Gulbarga
Smita P Patil, Prashant B Patil, Meena V Kashetty
May-August 2014, 4(2):113-116
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.138305  PMID:25254196
Objective: This study was undertaken to evaluate the respective effectiveness of the horizontal scrub, Fones, and modified Bass methods demonstrated on the cast to individual child within the classroom setting. Materials and Methods: A total of 180 healthy children studying in 1st and 2nd grades in the age range of 6-8 years were randomly selected from various schools of Gulbarga district, Karnataka, India. They were equally divided into three groups. Children in each group were demonstrated only one of the three brushing techniques, viz. horizontal scrub technique to group A, Fones technique to group B, and modified Bass technique to group C, using a cast model. All the children were re-examined and reviewed after 24 h and plaque index was re-assessed to obtain the follow-up data. The results were compared with the baseline data, and statistical analysis was carried out using paired t-test and intergroup comparison was made using analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. Results: Statistically significant (P < 0.001) reduction in plaque score was seen in modified Bass technique followed by horizontal scrub technique and the least efficacy was seen in Fones technique. Conclusion: This study showed that modified Bass technique was the most effective brushing technique in children.
  11 5,965 598
Oral hygiene and gingival health status of children with Down syndrome in Yemen: A cross-sectional study
Ghadah A Al-Sufyani, Sadeq Ali Al-Maweri, Abdulmalik A Al-Ghashm, Walid A Al-Soneidar
May-August 2014, 4(2):82-86
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.139429  PMID:25254190
Purpose: The objective of the present study was to assess the oral hygiene and gingival health status among Yemeni children with Down syndrome. Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised 101 children with Down syndrome attending special needs schools in Sana'a, Yemen. The calculus index (CI), plaque index (PI), and the gingival index (GI) were used to assess oral hygiene and gingival health status. Results: All subjects had gingivitis; the mean CI, PI, and GI scores were 0.58 ± 0.61, 1.45 ± 0.57, and 1.54 ± 0.64, respectively, with no significant difference found across gender. Stepwise linear regression analysis revealed that the best predictors in the descending order for CI were age and mother's education, and the best predictors for PI were IQ level, age, and father's education. Having severe mental retardation, older age, less educated parents were the most important predictors for poor gingival health status. Conclusions: These findings show that children with Down syndrome have poor oral hygiene and high levels of periodontal diseases. Hence, appropriate oral health education should be tailored to the needs of these children with the support of their teachers and parents.
  8 4,218 409
Comparative evaluation of retention of prefabricated and conventional cast post: An in vitro study
Suchismita Choudhary, Zubeda Begum, Prashant Choudhary, Siddhi Tripathi
May-August 2014, 4(2):87-91
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.137635  PMID:25254191
Background and Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate the retention of various prefabricated posts and to compare them with that of the conventional cast post. Materials and Methods: A sample of 60 freshly extracted single-rooted human mandibular first premolars were sectioned horizontally, 1 mm coronal to the cemento-enamel junction and randomly divided into four groups consisting of carbon fiber posts, glass fiber posts, stainless steel posts and cast metal posts. Cast metal post was the control group. Each group contained 15 specimen. The post space of 9 mm depth was prepared using specific drill supplied by the manufacturer. Resin patterns of the prepared post spaces were fabricated for 15 specimen and were cast in nickel chromium base metal alloy. All the posts were cemented with self-adhesive resin cement and mounted in acrylic cylinders. The teeth were subjected to tensile pull-out test using a universal testing machine. The force required to dislodge each post from the teeth was recorded. The data was analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni test. Results: The bond strength of all the prefabricated posts was significantly lower than the conventional cast post. Among the prefabricated posts highest bond strength was obtained for prefabricated stainless steel post and lowest for carbon fiber posts. There was no significant difference in the mean bond strength obtained for stainless steel and glass fiber post. Conclusion: Though no single prefabricated post could achieve results close to the control group, most retentive among the experimental group were the stainless steel posts. However, conditions where nonmetallic posts are indicated most preferred type of post can be the glass fiber posts.
  5 4,894 319
Role of fluoridated carbamide peroxide whitening gel in the remineralization of demineralized enamel: An in vitro study
Swetha Bollineni, Ravi Kumar Janga, L Venugopal, Indukuri Ravikishore Reddy, P Ravisekhar Babu, Sunil S Kumar
May-August 2014, 4(2):117-121
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.137638  PMID:25254197
Introduction: The use of self-administered carbamide peroxide bleaching gels has become increasingly popular for whitening of discolored vital teeth. Studies have reported that its use may induce increased levels of sensitivity and surface roughness of the tooth due to demineralization. This study evaluates the effect of fluoride addition to the bleaching agent - its remineralizing capacity and alterations in the whitening properties. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four extracted lower third molar teeth, with the pretreatment shade determined, were taken up in the study. Each tooth was sectioned into four and labeled as groups A, B, C, and D. The tooth quadrants in group A-C were demineralized; groups A and B were treated with 10% carbamide peroxide gel (group-A without fluoride and group-B with 0.463% fluoride addition) (no further treatment was carried out for group c) group-D remained as the control. The post-treatment shade was determined. The tooth samples were sectioned (approximately 200 μm) for evaluation under a light microscope. The depth of demineralization was analyzed at five different equidistant points. Statistical analysis was carried out with t-tests, accepting ≤0.05 as significant. Results and Conclusion: Addition of fluoride caused remineralization of demineralized enamel. The tooth whitening system showed that the remineralization properties did not affect the whitening properties.
  5 2,654 247
Factors influencing alcohol and tobacco addiction among patients attending a de-addiction Centre, South India
Poornima Prabhu, Raju Srinivas, Kashi Vishwanathan, Abhilash Raavi
May-August 2014, 4(2):103-107
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.137645  PMID:25254194
Introduction: Alcohol and tobacco consumption are highly correlated behaviors. Aim: To assess the factors influencing alcohol and tobacco addiction and their impact on personal, family, and social life among patients attending the Spandana Nursing Home and De-addiction Centre, Bangalore. The objectives are to assess the various factors leading to alcohol and tobacco addiction, to assess the influence of addiction on personal, family, and social life, and also to create awareness among the community with regard to the causes, impact, and ill-effects of alcohol and tobacco addiction. Materials and Methods: An observational study with a cross-section design was conducted from September 2006 to November 2006. A questionnaire was used to collect information pertaining to different aspects like family influences, parental prompts, peer pressure, age factor, financial constraints, occupation and career problems, and relation with family members and friends, which influenced the participants to initiate the use of tobacco and alcohol. On the basis of the pilot survey the sample size was fixed to be 200. The data recorded was entered into the computer and analyzed using the statistical package SPSS 10. Results: A majority of 83 (41.5%) were influenced by peer pressure, followed by nine (4.55) due to family problems, 16 (8%) due to financial drawbacks, 14 (7%) were stress- and job-related, 12 (6%) under family problems and peer pressure, seven (3.5%) stated a feeling of loneliness and insecurity, four (2%) because they were unable to cope with challenges, and he remaining four (2%) were influenced by elders in the family with similar habits. Conclusion: Several potential mechanisms promote the combined use of alcohol and nicotine. Investigators and researchers still need to fully elucidate and consider the roles of various genetic, neurobiological, conditioning, and psychosocial factors in developing a more thorough understanding of this dual addiction.
  5 2,567 214
Pediatric liquid medicaments - Are they cariogenic? An in vitro study
KL Girish Babu, Geeta Maruti Doddamani, LR Kumaraswamy Naik, KN Jagadeesh
May-August 2014, 4(2):108-112
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.137637  PMID:25254195
Aim: Young and chronically sick children receive a variety of oral liquid medications on a routine and regular basis. These pharmaceutical preparations are cariogenic and acidogenic in nature. Hence, the present study was taken up to determine the cariogenic potential of the commonly prescribed pediatric liquid medicaments. Materials and Methods: Eight commonly used pediatric liquid medicaments (PLM) were selected and their endogenous pH was measured using a pH electrode meter. The sugar content in them was estimated using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The effect of PLM on Streptococcus mutans was assessed by the ditch plate method. Results: The pH of the liquid medicaments ranged between 6.05 (Salbid®) and 7.71 (Theopid®). Sucrose was observed in 7 PLM and glucose in 5 PLM. The highest concentration of sucrose was seen in Crocin®. The lowest concentration of sucrose was seen with Althrocin®. Both the antibiotic PLMs inhibited the S. mutans growth. Zevit® promoted the growth of S. mutans. Conclusion: The pH and concentration of sugars of pediatric liquid medicaments can pose as a threat to dental health, especially in chronically sick children, who are on long-term medications.
  5 2,948 358
Remineralization effects of two pediatric dentifrices and one regular dentifrice on artificial carious lesion in primary teeth: An in vitro study
Shweta Advani, Suma Sogi, Shivayogi Hugar, KR Indushekar, K Kiran, Seema Hallikerimath
May-August 2014, 4(2):96-102
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.137627  PMID:25254193
Aim: The aim of the following study is to know the efficacy of remineralization of two pediatric dentifrices and one regular dentifrice on artificial carious lesions in primary teeth. Materials and Methods: A total of 21 teeth coated with nail varnish leaving a window of 1 mm were subjected to demineralization for 72 h. These 21 teeth were then sectioned into two equal parts with a diamond disc. The 42 sections obtained were then evaluated under the stereomicroscope and the demineralization values were noted. The 42 sections were divided into three groups: Group 1: Kidodent, Group 2: Cheeriogel, Group 3: Colgate Total and subjected to remineralization respectively for 7 days. The specimens were again evaluated under the stereomicroscope for the remineralisation values. Results : All the three dentifrices showed remineralization with artificial carious lesions. Colgate Total showed higher remineralization rates compared with the other two pediatric dentifrices. Kidodent showed a slightly higher remineralisation rate compared with Cheeriogel which was not significant. Conclusion/Hypothesis: The pediatric dentifrices also showed remineralization with artificial carious lesions. Hence, we conclude that, this amount of remineralization was more or less, when compared to the regular dentifrice which showed higher remineralization rates, which could lead to adverse effects, like fluorosis if not used judiciously. On basis of which we hypothetize: Pediatric dentifrices have an appropriate fluoride content, as required by the children, and also does not minimize the cariostatic effects.
  5 3,461 290
Behavioral changes in preschoolers treated with/without rotary instruments
Viral Pravin Maru, Amit Kumar, Bhumika Kamal Badiyani, Anant Raghav Sharma, Jitendra Sharma, Chintan Vinodbhai Dobariya
May-August 2014, 4(2):77-81
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.139427  PMID:25254189
Background: Behavioral dentistry is an interdisciplinary science which needs to be learned, practiced, and reinforced in order to provide quality dental care in children. Aim: To assess the anxiety experienced during dental treatment in preschool children with/without rotary instruments using behavioral scale. Study and Design: Sixty pediatric patients of preschool age with bilateral occlusal carious lesions extending into dentin were selected for the study. Carious lesions were removed using conventional rotary instruments on one side and Papacarie - chemomechanical caries removal of approach on contra lateral side. Both cavities were restored with glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX). Anxiety scores were determined using 'Modified Child Dental Anxiety Scale' (Wong et al, 1998) during the various clinical stages of the treatment course. Results: Children experienced relaxed behavior when subjected to Papacarie method of caries removal compared to conventional method using rotary instruments. Conclusion: This study helped us to provide behavioral measures and introduce children to dentistry in a nonthreatening setting.
  2 4,082 313
In vitro evaluation of antimicrobial activity of different Gutta‑percha points and calcium hydroxide pastes
Ashu Jhamb, Vishwajit Rampratap Chaurasia, Vinay kumar S Masamatti, Jai Hans Agarwal, Samarth Tiwari, Divya Nair
May-August 2014, 4(2):92-95
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.137648  PMID:25254192
Purpose: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of different compositions of Gutta‑percha points and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) pastes, used in endodontic therapy. Materials and Methods: The evaluated material consisted of Gutta‑percha points containing Ca(OH)2, Gutta‑percha points containing chlorhexidine (Chx), conventional Gutta-percha points and Ca(OH)2 pastes. Antimicrobial properties of Chx and CaOH paste are compared with CaOH points. Antimicrobial tests included three species of microorganisms: Escherichia coli (ATCC 25923), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25922) Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC BAA‑427), the agar disc diffusion method was employed. The plates were kept at room temperature for 2 h for prediffusion and then incubated at 37΀C for 24 h. Zones of inhibition were measured. Results and Conclusion: All microbial species used in the study were inhibited by the Gutta‑percha points containing Chx and by the Ca(OH)2 pastes, no antimicrobial activity was observed for the other groups (conventional Gutta‑percha and Ca(OH)2 group).
  2 2,726 217
Salivary fluoride levels after toothbrushing with dentifrices containing different concentrations of fluoride
Navin Anand Ingle, Reenu Sirohi, Navpreet Kaur, Amit Siwach
May-August 2014, 4(2):129-132
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.139837  PMID:25254199
Objective: To determine the salivary fluoride levels after toothbrushing with dentifrices containing 458 ppm and 1000 ppm of fluoride and to compare salivary fluoride levels of two dentifrices at different intervals of time. Materials and Methods: In total, 50 children in the age group of 6-12 years were selected. The individuals were randomly divided into two groups using either 458 ppm or 1000 ppm fluoride dentifrice, respectively. Whole saliva samples were collected prior to brushing, immediately after brushing, and at subsequent intervals after brushing into sterile test tubes. Results: Data collected were evaluated using unpaired t-test. Salivary fluoride level following the use of 458 ppm fluoride dentifrice was significantly lower than the level found following the use of 1000 ppm dentifrice, but the levels were above the baseline values even after 1 h. Conclusion: There was considerable salivary fluoride retention after brushing with fluoride dentifrices.
  2 2,389 184
Mixed dentition analysis - Applicability of two non-radiographic methods for Chennai school children
Naveen Kumar Kommineni, Chowdavaram Venkat Subba Reddy, Nelapati Sarath Chandra, Dappili Swami Ranga Reddy, Avula Kishore Kumar, Maram Vinay Chand Reddy
May-August 2014, 4(2):133-138
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.139847  PMID:25254200
Aim: To evaluate the applicability of the Tanaka and Johnston (1974) and Moyers (1988) methods in predicting the size of permanent canines and premolars in Chennai school children. Materials and Methods: 470 sets (127 female and 343 male) of cast models were included in the sample. Mesio-distal (m-d) widths of all teeth from left to right first molars were measured and compared with the predicted values derived from Tanaka and Johnston and Moyers methods. Results: There was significant bilateral symmetry and sexual dimorphism in teeth sizes seen in both the sexes. Sum of the m-d diameter of permanent mandibular incisors can be used reliably to predict the sum of m-d diameters of unerupted canines and premolars. Conclusions: Tanaka and Johnston's method cannot accurately predict the m-d widths. Moyers' prediction tables can be used to estimate the m-d widths of unerupted canines and premolars closer to 50% probability level.
  1 2,844 331