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   2014| December  | Volume 4 | Issue 6  
    Online since January 9, 2015

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Recent trends in prevention of oral cancer
Ummar Mangalath, Sachin Aslam Aslam, Abdul Hafiz Kooliyat Abdul Khadar, Pulikkan George Francis, Muhamed Shaloob Karimbil Mikacha, Jubin Hassan Kalathingal
December 2014, 4(6):131-138
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.149018  PMID:25625069
Oral cancers often occurs out of long standing potentially malignant lesions and conditions so called premalignant lesions and conditions. Oral precancer is a intermediate state with increased cancer rate which can be recognized and treated obviously with much better prognosis than a full blown malignancy. Oral cancer risk can be lowered or even prevented by simply understanding basic oral hygiene, different bacteria found in the mouth, and how diet influences oral cancers. Currently, research is being done on the relationship between diet and oral cancer. Oral cancer is a very serious disease that can be prevented. Practicing good oral hygiene is key to help keep the oral cavity clean. Limiting the use of tobacco and alcohol products is also important because these are the causes of most oral cancers. Lastly, eating a well balanced diet that has protective affects can reduce the risk of oral cancer. This includes a diet high in fruits, vegetables, and fish and low in high fat and cholesterol meats, rice, and refined grains.
  13 4,188 4,507
Prevalence and awareness of halitosis in a sample of Jordanian population
Mohammad M Hammad, Azmi MG Darwazeh, Haider Al-Waeli, Bassel Tarakji, Teeb T Alhadithy
December 2014, 4(6):178-186
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.149033  PMID:25625076
Objectives: This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and awareness of halitosis among the subjects of a population, and also to compare the results of Halimeter ® readings to self-estimation of halitosis and to assess the relationship between halitosis and oral health. Materials and Methods: A sample of 205 employees from the Jordan University for Science and Technology (JUST) were selected as study subjects. A standardized questionnaire focusing on dental hygiene, self-reported halitosis, and smoking was filled by all participants. In the clinical examination, the objective values for assessment of oral health and the presence of halitosis were gathered through an organoleptic test (OLT) and the measurement of volatile sulfur compound (VSC) level by Halimeter for each participant. Results: The prevalence of halitosis was 78%, with low rate of awareness (20.5%). The amount of TC played the most important role in increasing the concentration of VSCs in mouth air (P < 0.001). Conclusion: A statistically significant correlation was found between OLT and Halimeter values (P < 0.001). Subjective patients' opinion did not correlate with the objective evaluation of halitosis. TC scores and smoking were the factors significantly associated to halitosis. The Halimeter showed promising characteristics regarding diagnosis of halitosis for clinical setting and field surveys.
  9 2,638 240
Oral lesions and dental status of autistic children in Yemen: A case-control study
Sadeq Ali Al-Maweri, Esam S Halboub, Walid Ahmed Al-Soneidar, Ghadah A Al-Sufyani
December 2014, 4(6):199-203
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.149040  PMID:25625079
Purpose: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of oral lesions among children with autism in Sana'a City, Yemen, and to evaluate their dental status. Patients and Methods: This case-control study included 42 children with autism, aged between 5 and 16 years, and 84 age- and gender-matched healthy children as controls. Oral lesions were assessed based on standardized criteria according to the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. Dental caries, gingival health, and oral hygiene status were assessed using dmft/DMFT index, Gingival Index (GI), and Plaque Index (PI), respectively. Chi-square test and Mann-Whitney's test were used to compare the groups. Results: Compared to controls, children with autism revealed higher proportion of fistulae (9.5% vs. 2.4%), ulcerative lesions (7.1% vs. 1.2%), gingival hyperplasia (4.8% vs. 0.0%), and cheilitis (4.8% vs. 2.4%); however, the differences were not statistically significant. The mean dmft score was significantly higher in children with autism than in controls (5.23 vs. 4.06; P < 0.001). Moreover, children with autism revealed poorer oral hygiene than controls, and the majority had gingivitis. Conclusions: Children with autism in Yemen have high prevalence of oral soft tissue lesions, caries, and gingivitis. Therefore, proper oral health education programs should be initiated and directed toward this special section of the society.
  9 2,588 290
Perceived outcomes and satisfaction of Saudi parents and their children following dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia: A 2-year follow-up
Hisham Yehia El Batawi, Priyankar Panigrahi, Manal A Awad
December 2014, 4(6):153-160
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.149024  PMID:25625072
Purpose: To investigate the perceived clinical outcome and parents' satisfaction after dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia over a follow-up period of 2 years. Materials and Methods: A prospective study of questionnaire data obtained from 352 pediatric patients before and after treatment of early childhood caries with full dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia. Questionnaires focused on oral symptoms, functional limitations, and emotional and social well-being before and after dental treatment. Cases were followed up for 2 years postoperatively. Results: A dramatic disappearance of symptoms was reported from parents' perspective. There was a high satisfaction rate (99.14%) also among parents of the children included in the study. Conclusion: Children with early childhood caries do not necessarily express it verbally as pain. The disease has a lot of other expressions affecting children's behavior and habits, including the ability to sleep, thrive, and socialize. This study contributes to the existing literature that full dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia [dental general anesthesia (DGA)] has an immediate positive impact on the physical and social quality of life of children suffering from early childhood caries as well as on their families. Postoperative preventive care, early diagnosis, and treatment of recurrent caries are key factors to maintain postoperative outcome of DGA.
  7 2,244 320
Gynecologists' knowledge and attitudes regarding oral health and periodontal disease leading to adverse pregnancy outcomes
Raghad Hashim, Madiha Akbar
December 2014, 4(6):166-172
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.149028  PMID:25625074
Objectives: A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge and practiced behaviors of gynecologists regarding oral health care during pregnancy and the association of periodontal disease with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire consisting of 16 questions was designed and pilot tested. One hundred and fifty gynecologists practicing in the private sector of United Arab Emirates (UAE) were approached to voluntarily participate and fill up the questionnaire during February-March 2014. Data retrieved were entered into Excel database and analyzed using SPSS. Results: Of the 150 gynecologists approached, 108 filled the questionnaire, yielding a response rate of 72%. The majority (95.4%) acknowledged a connection between oral health and pregnancy and 75.9% agreed that periodontal disease can affect the outcome of pregnancy. Moreover, most of the gynecologists (85.2%) advised their pregnant patients to visit the dentist during pregnancy. Almost three-quarter of the participants (73%) regarded dental radiographs to be unsafe during pregnancy and more than half (59.3%) considered administration of local anesthesia to be unsafe during pregnancy. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that gynecologists have a relatively high degree of knowledge with respect to the relationship of periodontal disease to pregnancy outcome. However, there clearly exist misconceptions regarding the provision of dental treatment during pregnancy. To provide better oral health care, more knowledge needs to be made available to the pregnant women and the medical community, and misconceptions regarding the types of dental treatments during pregnancy should be clarified.
  6 3,515 376
Sports dentistry: A review
Naveen Kumar Ramagoni, Vijaya Kumar Singamaneni, Saketh Rama Rao, Jamini Karthikeyan
December 2014, 4(6):139-146
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.149019  PMID:25625070
Dental trauma in sports is the major linking channel between sports and dentistry. Sports dentistry is the prevention of oral/facial athletic injuries and related oral diseases and manifestations. In children, sports activities were found to be responsible for 13% of overall oral trauma. It is emphasized that there is a great need for "Team Dentist" from high schools to professional teams. In this review, we discuss the relationship between sports and dentistry, and the importance of educating parents, teachers, and children in prevention of injuries related to the sports.
  5 5,402 2,490
Estimation of salivary β-glucuronidase activity as a marker of periodontal disease: A case control study
Chandra Sekhara Prabhahar, K. Thanvir Mohamed Niazi, R Prakash, A Yuvaraj, Somasekhar Goud, P Ravishekar
December 2014, 4(6):193-198
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.149039  PMID:25625078
Aim: The aim of the present study was to estimate the salivary β-glucuronidase level in healthy and diseased periodontium and to correlate the level with clinical measurement. Materials and Methods: 70 patients were included in this study with the age ranging from 30 to 65 years. Both males and females were included. They were divided into two groups: Control having healthy periodontium (n = 20) and experimental having diseased periodontium (n = 50). The parameters recorded were probing pocket depth, probing attachment level, gingival index, β-glucuronidase activity in the saliva, number of white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes count, and platelet count. Results: It was observed that there was an increase in the level of salivary β-glucuronidase in the experimental subjects than in the control patients, and a significant positive linear relationship existed between salivary β-glucuronidase level and probing pocket depth in the experimental group. Conclusion: Level of salivary β-glucuronidase increases during inflammation in the periodontium.
  4 2,921 157
Hemophilia A: Dental considerations and management
Shilpa Padar Shastry, Rachna Kaul, Kusai Baroudi, Dilshad Umar
December 2014, 4(6):147-152
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.149022  PMID:25625071
Aim: To review hemophilia A with emphasis on its oral manifestations, investigations, and dental management. Materials and Methods: Search was conducted using internet-based search engines, scholarly bibliographic databases, PubMed, and Medline with key words such as "Hemophilia A," "factor VIII," "bleeding and clotting disorders," and "dental management." Results: Hemophilia comprises a group of hereditary disorders caused due to the deficiency of one or more clotting factors leading to prolonged clotting time and excessive bleeding tendencies. It is broadly divided into hemophilia A, B, and C, which occur due to deficiency of factor VIII, IX, and XI, respectively. Hemophilia A is an X-linked recessive hereditary disorder and is the most common of the three, accounting for 80-85% of the cases. Conclusion: Understanding this complex entity is very important for a dentist to provide appropriate dental treatment and avoid undesirable consequences.
  2 5,898 782
In vivo evaluation of the accuracy of working length determination using an electronic apex locater IPEX (NSK) on vital uninfected teeth and teeth with radiographic evidence of periapical lesions
Kachenahalli Narasimhaiah Raghu, Jacob G Daniel, Shuaib Razvi, Ramachandra Vinaychandra, Annapurna Kini, Kunigal Jayram Nandakishore
December 2014, 4(6):204-208
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.149042  PMID:25625080
Aim: To evaluate the accuracy of working length determination of an electronic apex locator, IPEX, on vital uninfected teeth and teeth with radiographic evidence of periapical lesions. Materials and Methods: Twenty vital and uninfected teeth and 16 teeth with a single canal and matured apices and having radiographic evidence of periapical lesions of 5-10 mm were taken for this study. Access cavities were prepared and pulp was considered to be vital if bleeding was present upon entering the chambers. No. 15 k-type file was used to determine the working length. X-rays were taken to determine the working length using Ingle's method, followed by determination using the electronic apex locator, IPEX. Teeth were then observed under 45 × magnification using stereomicroscope. No 15 k-type file was maneuvered till the emergence of the tip was seen and the real length of the tooth was thus measured in the instrument up to 0.5 mm accuracy using stereomicroscope. Results: The data were duly collected and entered, and the statistical analysis was done using Student's t test. In uninfected teeth, IPEX was found to be more reliable than Ingle's radiographic technique, but this was not statistically significant. In case of teeth with radiographic evidence of periapical lesions, the radiographic method appeared to be relatively more dependable; however, this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: For rendering effective root canal procedure, both radiographs and electronic apex locators have important roles to play.
  1 1,935 185
Microscope magnification and ultrasonic precision guidance for location and negotiation of second mesiobuccal canal: An in vivo study
Ramachandra Sujith, Kiranmurthy Dhananjaya, Vishwajit Rampratap Chaurasia, Deepa Kasigari, Anusha Channabasappa Veerabhadrappa, Sachin Naik
December 2014, 4(6):209-212
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.149045  PMID:25625081
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of using the dental operating microscope (DOM) and ultrasonics for the detection of second mesiobuccal (MB2) canal orifice in maxillary first molars. Materials and Methods: Sixty subjects seeking root canal therapy for maxillary first molar were assessed for the presence of MB2 canal using endodontic explorer without magnification. Teeth in which the MB2 canal orifice could not be located were examined under magnification using DOM. If the MB2 canal orifice could not be found even after using DOM, ultrasonic tips were used to prepare 3-mm-long trough from the mesiobuccal canal orifice toward the palatal canal and examined under DOM for location of the canal. Results: With naked eye, the MB2 canal was located in 12 teeth; with the use of the DOM, the MB2 canal was located in 21 additional teeth; and with the combined use of ultrasonic tip and DOM, the MB2 canal was located in 9 more teeth. Statistical comparisons between the tested techniques were done by analyzing the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves; a statistically significant difference was found (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that the DOM and ultrasonics provide increased opportunity for the dentist to detect canal orifices.
  1 2,601 224
In-dental office screening for diabetes mellitus using gingival crevicular blood
M.V. Ramoji Rao, M. Vinay C Reddy, S Shyam Sunder, Balaram Kolasani, Garipineni Kiranmai, K Ramesh Kumar
December 2014, 4(6):161-165
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.149026  PMID:25625073
Aim: To evaluate whether during routine periodontal examination blood from gingival tissues can be used for determining glucose levels. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with gingivitis or periodontitis and bleeding on probing (BOP) were chosen. The following clinical periodontal parameters were noted: probing depth, BOP, gingival bleeding index, and periodontal disease index. Blood samples were collected from gingival crevicular blood (GCB) and capillary finger prick blood (CFB). These samples were analyzed using a glucose self-monitoring device. Results: Descriptive statistical analysis was carried out in the present study. Data were analyzed using a Pearson's correlation coefficient and Student's t-test. An r-value of 0.97 shows very strong correlation between CFB and GCB, which was statistically highly significant (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: The authors conclude that GCB may serve as potential source of screening blood glucose during routine periodontal examination in populations with an unknown history of diabetes mellitus.
  - 1,856 244
Identification of sex using lip prints : A clinical study
Vivek Sharma, Navin Anand Ingle, Navpreet Kaur, Pramod Yadav
December 2014, 4(6):173-177
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.149030  PMID:25625075
Aim: To determine the sex of an individual from the configuration of lip prints. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 200 first to final year BDS students of K. D. Dental College and Hospital, Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, India. All the subjects (females = 100, males = 100) belonged to the age group of 17-26 years. Non-glossed lip stick color, white bond paper, cellophane tape, scissors, and magnifying lens were used for identification. Length and thickness of the upper and lower lips were measured with sliding calipers. For all the lip prints, the thickness of the lip was measured at the center of the lip. Results: Overall accuracy by the examiner was found to be 81% (out of 200 participants, 162 were diagnosed correctly) and distribution of lip patterns showed a statistically significant difference between the genders (P ≤ 0.05). For the upper lip, the average difference in lip thickness found between males and females was 3.8 mm. However, the average difference for the lower lip between males and females was 2.9 mm. Conclusion: In the present study, the lip prints of the subjects did not match with each other. The study reveals that lip prints behold the potential of determination of the sex of the person.
  - 2,218 177
An in vitro evaluation of the effect of dentin deproteinization on coronal microleakage in endodontically treated teeth
K Vikram Shetty, Kapil Jhajharia, Vishwajit Rampratap Chaurasia, Ashu Jhamb, Varsha Rohra, Akanksha Manmohan Sharma
December 2014, 4(6):187-192
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.149036  PMID:25625077
Background: The most common cause of failure of endodontic therapy is inadequate apical and coronal seal. Proper coronal seal reduces the risk of endodontic failure. Hence, the present study was done to test the role of self-etching primers in reducing microleakage through coronal seal. Materials and Methods: Following root canal preparation and obturation, 46 specimen teeth were subjected to one of the test methods as follows: Group I - deproteinization with 3% sodium hypochlorite and etching with 37% phosphoric acid; Group II - deproteinization with 3% sodium hypochlorite and chelation with 15% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (Glyde) without etching. Group I and Group II were further divided into two subgroups with 10 specimens in each: In subgroup A, Clearfil Liner Bond 2V was used and in subgroup B, Excite was used. Group III (obturated without access restorative material) had six specimens. Results: Spectrophotometric analysis was done to quantitatively analyze the amount of dye leakage. Microleakage values obtained in Group I and Group II were comparable. In Group I, marginally better values were obtained with the Clearfil Liner Bond 2V in comparison with Excite. In Group II, microleakage values obtained with Clearfil Liner Bond 2V and Excite were similar and statistically not significant. In Group III (control) where no access restoratives were placed, maximum leakage was observed. Conclusions: Maximum leakage values were observed in Group III, when obturated without access restorative and when exposed to artificial saliva. Clearfil Liner Bond 2V as a self-etching primer showed better values in preventing microleakage. Deproteinization may be important to reduce microleakage when using the fifth-generation bonding system (Excite) and sixth-generation bonding system (Clearfil Liner Bond 2V).
  - 1,731 156