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   2016| April  | Volume 6 | Issue 7  
    Online since April 26, 2016

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Evaluation of the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma and platelet-rich fibrin in alveolar defects after removal of impacted bilateral mandibular third molars
Amol M Doiphode, Prashanth Hegde, Uma Mahindra, SM Santhosh Kumar, Pavan D Tenglikar, Vivek Tripathi
April 2016, 6(7):47-52
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.181167  PMID:27195227
Aim and Objectives: This study attempted the evaluation of the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) in alveolar defects after removal of bilateral mandibular third molars. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 patients reporting to Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and having bilateral mandibular third molar impaction in both male and female aged between 18 and 30 years were included in this study. PRF and PRP were placed in extraction site and recalled at 2 nd , 4 th , and 6 th month postoperatively. Data were statistically analyzed using IBM SPSS software for Windows, version 19.0. IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA. Results: This study showed decreased probing depth in PRF group compared to PRP and control one. This signifies a better soft tissue healing of extraction sockets with PRF as compared to the PRP and the control group and increase in the bone density highlights the use of PRP and PRF certainly as a valid method in inducing hard tissue regeneration. Conclusion: This study indicates a definite improvement in the periodontal health distal to second molar after third molar surgery in cases treated with PRF as compared to the PRP group and control group. Hence, PRP and PRF can be incorporated as an adjunct to promote wound healing and osseous regeneration in mandibular third molar extraction sites.
  3,615 301 10
Early prevention and intervention of Class II division 1 in growing patients
V Naga Keerthi, S Dhivya Kanya, K Pradeep Babu, Anoop Mathew, A Nanda Kumar
April 2016, 6(7):79-83
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.181191  PMID:27195234
Early screening and diagnosis help in preventing and intercepting the severity of the malocclusion which helps in addressing the esthetic and functional concerns. Growth modulation such as mandibular advancement has been an effective procedure in orthodontics. Mandibular growth advancer (MGA) and PowerScope are gaining popularity recently as these are effective in achieving the mandibular advancement and ease of fabrication, placement, and wear. MGA was fabricated by making the upper and lower splints separately and are placed in the oral cavity by joining the two splints in the new construction bite using cold cure, MGA when worn during growth phase helps in condylar remodeling in the temporomandibular joint thus helps in advancement of the mandible. The proclination of the upper anteriors in Class II division 1 can be moved lingually by activating the labial bow in the splint. Dr. Andy Hayes worked in conjunction with American orthodontics developed PowerScope. PowerScope delivers Class II correction with a combination of patient comfort and ease of use that was unmatched among other appliances. This ready to use chairside solution required no laboratory setup, making for a much quicker, and easier installation process and appointment. PowerScopes high quality, fixed one-piece design requires no patient compliance. These superior qualities of PowerScope help in correction of Class II skeletal growing patient in conjunction with fixed orthodontic therapy. MGA and PowerScope were chosen as a functional appliance for this study, which shows decreased ANB angle and effective mandible length was increased.
  3,269 198 1
Effectiveness of chemomechanical caries removal agents Papacarie ® and Carie-Care™ in primary molars: An in vitro study
Suzan Sahana, Aron Arun Kumar Vasa, Divya Geddam, Vamsi Krishna Reddy, Sowjanya Nalluri, Nagajyothi Velagapudi
April 2016, 6(7):17-22
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.181162  PMID:27195222
Aims and Objectives: The chemomechanical caries removal system is made presently available containing a natural proteolytic enzyme for ease in the excavation of infected dentin. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and efficiency of caries removal using Papacarie ® and Carie-Care™. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 extracted deciduous molars with proximal caries were collected, and each tooth was sectioned mesiodistally in the center of the carious lesion so that the two halves (buccal and lingual or palatal) have similar carious lesions, thus 30 teeth yielded 60 specimens. The specimens from each tooth were divided alternatively into two groups for caries excavation either using Papacarie ® or Carie-Care™ so as to avoid selection bias. Paired t-test was used to compare mean time taken for caries removal and Fischer's exact test was done for comparing bacterial remnants after caries excavation. Results: Mean time taken for caries removal was significantly higher for Carie-Care™ (427.13 s) when compared to Papacarie ® (385.8 s). Papacarie ® was found to be significantly more efficient in caries removal with marked reduction in the bacterial remnants following excavation. However, both gels were found to be conservative as dentinal tubule destruction was not evident in either of them. Conclusion: Both Papacarie ® and Carie-Care™ were found to be conservative in caries removal. Papacarie ® was more efficient in removing bacteria in lesser time from the infected carious lesion.
  2,849 233 1
Comparative evaluation of compressive strength, diametral tensile strength and shear bond strength of GIC type IX, chlorhexidine-incorporated GIC and triclosan-incorporated GIC: An in vitro study
Shipra Jaidka, Rani Somani, Deepti J Singh, Shazia Shafat
April 2016, 6(7):64-69
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.181188  PMID:27195231
Aim: To comparatively evaluate the compressive strength, diametral tensile strength, and shear bond strength of glass ionomer cement type IX, chlorhexidine-incorporated glass ionomer cement, and triclosan-incorporated glass ionomer cement. Materials and Methods: In this study, glass ionomer cement type IX was used as a control. Chlorhexidine diacetate, and triclosan were added to glass ionomer cement type IX powder, respectively, in order to obtain 0.5, 1.25, and 2.5% concentrations of the respective experimental groups. Compressive strength, diametral tensile strength, and shear bond strength were evaluated after 24 h using Instron Universal Testing Machine. The results obtained were statistically analyzed using the independent t-test, Dunnett test, and Tukey test. Results: There was no statistical difference in the compressive strength, diametral tensile strength, and shear bond strength of glass ionomer cement type IX (control), 0.5% triclosan-glass ionomer cement, and 0.5% chlorhexidine-glass ionomer cement. Conclusion: The present study suggests that the compressive strength, diametral tensile strength, and shear bond strength of 0.5% triclosan-glass ionomer cement and 0.5% chlorhexidine-glass ionomer cement were similar to those of the glass ionomer cement type IX, discernibly signifying that these can be considered as viable options for use in pediatric dentistry with the additional value of antimicrobial property along with physical properties within the higher acceptable range.
  2,498 307 1
Assessing Angle's malocclusion among cleft lip and/or palate patients in Jammu
Akshay Gupta, Anur Gupta, Amit Bhardwaj, S Vikram, Ajeetha Gomathi, Karanprakash Singh
April 2016, 6(7):23-27
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.181163  PMID:27195223
Objective: The study was conducted to examine the patients with abnormalities of cleft lip and/or palate and its association with different types of malocclusion. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was done among 168 patients with abnormalities of cleft lip and/or palate. Angle's classification of malocclusion was applied for assessment of occlusion as Class I, Class II, and Class III. The types of oral clefts classification such as cleft lip unilateral and cleft lip bilateral, cleft palate (CP),   unilateral cleft lip with palate (UCLP) and  bilateral cleft lip with palate (BCLP) was considered. Chi-square test was applied to analyze the data at P < 0.05. Results: The study showed different categories of clefts patients as cleft lip (81), CP (31), and both cleft lip and palate (53). The occurrence of unilateral cleft lip (44) was maximum among the sample followed by UCLP (39), and bilateral cleft lip (31). Maximum subjects with Class II (10.7%) and Class III (4.9%) malocclusion were seen with unilateral cleft lip deformities. None of the patients with UCLP had Class III malocclusion. Conclusion: Cleft lip was the most commonly observed deformity and high frequency of Class II and III malocclusion was evident. Therefore, patients with such abnormalities should be screened timely.
  2,507 214 -
Prevalence of anterior dental trauma and its associated factors among children aged 3-5 years in Jaipur City, India - A cross sectional study
Vemina P Chalissery, Nikhil Marwah, Mohammed Jafer, Elna P Chalisserry, Tanmay Bhatt, Sukumaran Anil
April 2016, 6(7):35-40
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.181165  PMID:27195225
Objective: To study the prevalence of anterior dental trauma and its associated factors among 800 preschool children aged 3 to 5 years in Jaipur City, Rajasthan, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among children aged 3-5 years, who were enrolled in various private and public schools in Jaipur. Parents were asked to fill a form addressing socio-demographic data and clinical examinations were performed by a single dentist. Traumatic dental injuries (TDI) were assessed and recorded based on Andreasen's classification. Associated factors such as sex, socioeconomic status (SES), and the type of injury were also analyzed. The data were analyzed statistically using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software (version 20). Results: An overall 10.2% prevalence of TDI was observed among the study population. TDI were reported to be more among male children (11.87%) compared to female children (8.14%). Enamel fractures (69%) were the most prevalent type of anterior dental trauma. Upper central incisors were the most frequently affected. The SES of the parents had little influence on the prevalence of TDI. Conclusions: The prevalence rate of dental trauma among children aged 3-5 years was 10.2%. Associated factors, such as SES, were observed to be not significantly correlated to dental trauma among the studied preschoolers.
  2,499 214 3
Distribution of smile line, gingival angle and tooth shape among the Saudi Arabian subpopulation and their association with gingival biotype
Nabeeh A AlQahtani, Satheesh B Haralur, Mohammad AlMaqbol, Ali Jubran AlMufarrij, Ahmed Ali Al Dera, Mohammed Al-Qarni
April 2016, 6(7):53-58
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.181168  PMID:27195228
Objectives: To determine the occurrence of smile line and maxillary tooth shape in the Saudi Arabian subpopulation, and to estimate the association between these parameters with gingival biotype. Materials and Methods: On the fulfillment of selection criteria, total 315 patients belong to Saudi Arabian ethnic group were randomly selected. Two frontal photographs of the patients were acquired. The tooth morphology, gingival angle, and smile line classification were determined with ImageJ image analyzing software. The gingival biotype was assessed by probe transparency method. The obtained data were analyzed with SPSS 19 (IBM Corporation, New York, USA) software to determine the frequency and association between other parameters and gingival biotype. Results: Among the clinical parameters evaluated, the tapering tooth morphology (56.8%), thick gingival biotype (53%), and average smile line (57.5%) was more prevalent. The statistically significant association was found between thick gingival biotype and the square tooth, high smile line. The high gingival angle was associated with thin gingival biotype. Conclusions: The study results indicate the existence of an association between tooth shape, smile line, and gingival angle with gingival biotype.
  2,241 136 -
Comparison of a commercially available herbal and 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthrinse for prevention of oral malodor: A clinical trial
Vandita Mishra, Leena Shettar, Mahesh Bajaj, Abhishek Savir Math
April 2016, 6(7):6-11
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.181160  PMID:27195230
Objectives: Despite the adverse effects of chlorhexidine (CHX) in the oral cavity, it is still the most commonly prescribed mouthrinse for halitosis control due to its excellent results. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of a mouthrinse with herbal formulation for halitosis control with 0.2% CHX gluconate containing rinse and to simultaneously assess adverse effects caused by the herbal mouthrinse if any. Materials and Methods: Ninety-six systemically healthy subjects with chronic generalized gingivitis were recruited in the study and divided into three groups receiving 0.2% CHX gluconate mouthrinse, herbal mouthrinse, or negative control, respectively as Group A, B, and C. The halimeter scores and organoleptic scores were recorded for each subject at baseline and after scaling. Others parameters recorded were plaque index and gingival index. All scores were reassessed on the 7 th and 14 th day, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U-test, and Wilcoxon matched pairs test. Results: There was an overall reduction in the halimeter scores both in Group A and B subjects which were not statistically significant within the groups; this was in accordance with the decrease in the mean organoleptic scores. Reduction in Group C scores was the least and differed statistically from both Group A and B scores. Conclusions: The results indicate an equivalent reduction in breath odor by both the herbal mouthrinse and CHX. Furthermore, side effects were less, and patient compliance was more with the herbal mouthrinse, which can thus be prescribed more safely and with predictable outcomes for oral malodor.
  2,006 126 3
Working environment and specialty of choice chosen by the dental students at Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia: A cross-sectional study
George Sam, Abdullah Saud Alghmlas, Muath I Alrashed, Ziyad A Alaskar
April 2016, 6(7):1-5
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.181159  PMID:27195220
Objectives: This cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the specialty chosen by the dental students for postgraduate studies and the future aspirations of students in  a Saudi Arabia dental college. Materials and Methods: Of the total number of 120 questionnaires that were distributed, 107 subjects responded with selective responses and a response rate of 89%. A descriptive survey was conducted using one of the questionnaires among the students of dentistry at the dental college, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj among male students (men's college) for a period of 2 months. The data were analyzed using the statistical software program, predictive analytics software Statistics version 22.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results: A hundred and seven of the 120 students took part in the study. A "passion for orthodontics" (42.9%) was reported to be the most important factor that influenced the decision to pursue specialty training in orthodontics followed by "intellectual stimulation/challenge" (25%). The decision to pursue orthodontics was made by 32.1% of the respondents while in dental school; 35.7% took the decision after completing dental school during private practice and 14.3% during a dental residency, whereas 3.6% had already decided before initiating their dental school studies. Working in a private practice environment was preferred by 11 residents (39.3%). Only four residents indicated that they would most likely be practicing in an academic setting while 10 were undecided. Conclusions: The zest for nonclinical specialties is less among students at  Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University's dental college, Saudi Arabia.
  1,753 190 1
Prevalence of periodontal diseases among rural population of Mustabad, Krishna District
Mulpuri V Ramoji Rao, Pavan Kumar Katari, Lokesh Vegi, Tarun Teja Bypureddy, Koneru Samyuktha Prabhakara Rao, Kanikanti Siva Tejaswi
April 2016, 6(7):59-63
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.181169  PMID:27195229
Aims and Objectives: People in rural areas neglect oral health as they lack awareness on dental diseases and also due to inadequate availability of dental services. The prevalence of illiteracy is also a reason which can be attributed to a poor oral health. This epidemiological study is undertaken to assess the prevalence of periodontal diseases in the rural population of  Mustabad - in Krishna, Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study based on randomized sampling method was carried out using the WHO assessment form (1997) on a population of 470. The data were subjected to statistical analysis using Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 15.0. Results: The subjects were 220 males and 250 females. Maximum numbers of subjects were in the age group of 35-44 years (21.91%). Prevalence of periodontal disease was found to be 73.62%. The periodontal status deteriorated with aging. Prevalence of periodontitis was higher in females (56.35%) compared to males (43.65%). Males had a higher prevalence of deep pockets (3.18%), whereas females had a higher prevalence of shallow pockets (3.20%). Females had twice the bleeding tendency (18.80%) compared to males (8.64%). Conclusion: The increasing prevalence of periodontal diseases is an impending problem which needs immediate intervention, if not it would have a serious negative impact on the future oral health. The need of the hour is more epidemiological studies with a bigger sample are required.
  1,782 132 -
Comparative failure load values of acrylic resin denture teeth bonded to three different heat cure denture base resins: An in vitro study
Sumit Singh Phukela, Amit Dua, Mahima Dua, Varun Sehgal, Gaurav Setya, Rupinder Singh Dhall
April 2016, 6(7):12-16
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.181161  PMID:27195221
Aim and Objectives: Acrylic teeth are used for fabrication of dentures. Debonding of tooth - denture base bond is routine problem in dental practice. The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate failure load of acrylic resin denture teeth bonded to three different heat resin. Materials and Methods: Four groups were created out of test samples central incisors (11). Group I: Control, whereas Group II, Group III and Group IV were experimental groups modified with diatoric hole, cingulum ledge lock and Teeth modified with both diatoric hole and cingulum ledge lock, respectively. These test specimens with 3 teeth (2 central [11, 21] and 1, lateral [12] incisors) positioned imitating arrangement of teeth in the conventional denture, prepared by three different heat cure materials (DPI, Trevalon, Acralyn-"H"). A shear load was applied at cingulum of central incisor (11) at 130° to its long axis using universal tester at a cross head speed of 5 mm/min until failure occurred. Failure load test was conducted and statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 16 software package (IBM Company, New York, U.S). Results: Highest failure load was seen in Group IV specimens, prepared by Trevalon but did not significantly differ from that of DPI. Conclusion: The failure load of bonding denture teeth to three different heat cure materials was notably affected by modifications of ridge lap before processing. The specimens with a combination of diatoric hole and cingulum ledge lock, prepared by Trevalon showed highest failure load but did not significantly vary from that of DPI. The control group prepared by Acralyn-"H" showed lowest failure load but did not significantly differ from that of DPI.
  1,738 133 1
Assessment of readiness of dental faculty and students in Kuwait to implement a smoking cessation counseling curriculum
Mai E Khalaf, Ralph V Katz
April 2016, 6(7):28-34
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.181164  PMID:27195224
Aims and Objectives: The goal of this study was to assess the readiness of both dental faculty and dental students in Kuwait to implement a smoking cessation counseling curriculum. Materials and Methods: The study population included all faculty and students in their clinical training years at the Faculty of Dentistry, Kuwait University. The survey instrument was a 42-item questionnaire. Data analysis involved employing various methods of descriptive statistics. Results: Students and faculty reported that their general knowledge of what to include in a cessation message was "excellent." Students reported and anticipated more clinical barriers than did the faculty. Both students and faculty agreed strongly that they were willing to refer patients for cessation in their clinical practice, faculty were much less willing to prescribe medications for cessation as compared to students. The majority of students and faculty disagreed with the statement that performing cessation was easy. Responses showed that the use of the 5 A's has not penetrated well into clinical practice for either the students or the faculty. Conclusions: Clinical students and faculty members believe smoking cessation counseling to be effective; however, their activity was mostly limited to asking patients if they smoked and both reported their knowledge of cessation counseling to be only "fair."
  1,455 358 1
"Musculoskeletal problem": Its prevalence among Iranian dentists
Mohammad Reza Nokhostin, A Hamid Zafarmand
April 2016, 6(7):41-46
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.181166  PMID:27195226
Objectives: Musculoskeletal problems (MSPs) are a major complication for practitioners in the field of dentistry. The present study is designed to define the prevalence of MSPs among Iranian dentists. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey conducted on 600 dentists. The questions were about demographic characteristics, headache, and physical problems of different parts of the body. Data were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. Results: Of all dentists studied, 67.5% had physical problems. These MSPs were observed in neck (51.87%), wrist (92.96%), waist (11.11%), and shoulder (7.40%) of the practitioners. Some practitioners took leave of absence (18.52%), while others (7.40%) underwent medical care. There was a direct correlation between age (P = 0.0001), high body mass index (BMI; P = 0.021), total number of daily under-care patients (P = 0.002), and little physical activity (P = 0.0001) with MSPs. Conclusion: The prevalence of MSPs is very high among dentists. Awareness about preventive care is necessary for dentists. The dental curriculum also should address "ergonomic" issues for dental educators.
  1,511 116 4
Detection and management of a complex canal configuration in mesiobuccal root of maxillary first molar using three dimensional imaging
Velagala L Deepa, Indira Priyadharsini Bollu, Bhargavi Dhamaraju, Padmasri Yadla
April 2016, 6(7):75-78
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.181190  PMID:27195233
This case report discusses the identification and management of complex canal configuration of 3-2-1 in the mesiobuccal (MB) root of the maxillary left first molar. Careful attention to details of the pulpal floor and applying the knowledge of the laws of orifice location along with deepening the subpulpal groove with ultrasonic tips helped in identifying the three MB canals. Manual scouting helped in understanding the anatomic configuration; the use of three-dimensional imaging technique and spiral computed tomography (SCT) confirmed the same. SCT images showed buccolingually wide and bulbous mesiobuccal root with three separate canals at coronal third that merged into two canals in the middle and exited as a single canal at the apex. This article highlights the role of SCT in three-dimensionally analyzing the unseen rarest canal configurations that ultimately enabled the clinician to thoroughly explore, debride, and obturate the entire root canal system.
  1,364 114 1
Effect of hyperbaric oxygen profiles on the bond strength of repaired composite resin
Hossam Mossa, Essam ElKhatat, Ahmed M Hassan, Kusai Baroudi, Khaled Beshr
April 2016, 6(7):70-74
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.181189  PMID:27195232
Objective: This study was performed to evaluate the bond strength of repaired three types of composite resins under various hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) profiles with various session numbers. Materials and Methods: Sixty specimens of three types of composite resin (nanofilled composite, nanohybrid composite and microfilled composite) each type of composite was divided into four group according to various profiles of HBO treatment (control, 2bar, 3 bar and 5 bar). Then, the specimens were repaired; thermocycled, the tensile bond strength were measured. Then the data were analyzed by One-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test (α = 0.05). Results: The highest bond strength was obtained for the repaired nanofilled composite resin specimens while; the lowest bond strength was obtained for the repaired microfilled composite resin specimens. The highest tensile bond strength was recorded for the specimens who treated with the highest pressure of HBO. Conclusion: The bond strength of repaired nanofilled composite resins is better than the other types of composite resin. The highest pressure of HBO, the highest bond strength of repaired composite resins.
  1,243 87 -